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My story with reservations as a general category student.

2020.08.23 11:13 AllAgTCups My story with reservations as a general category student.

Let me tell you a story. I am a middle class general category student (with an income of Rs. 2 lakh/month) I studied 16 hours a day, skipping family functions, sports, went to my coaching classes daily and sincerely attended them. Then there's a trillionaire Dalit kid I know, who's dad owns a rolls royce along with several cars, a private helicopter and a jet. He used to come to our classes using his dad's private helicopter since he lived in his Rs. 10,000 crore mansion a bit far away from our coaching centre.
He wears gold plated watches that cost like Rs. 1 lakh. He wears the latest nike shoes that cost Rs. 50,000 and he buys new pair of such shoes everyday. He Owns a gold and diamond plated i-phone costing several lakhs. He used to sit at the back of our classes and chat with his friends. He had like several girlfriends and used to have sex daily, party hard everyday, barely had 50% attendece in his coaching classes. I tried making a girlfriend, but couldn't these all girls, even the Brahmin girls won't date me instead they just these dated Dalit and Muslim boys and then these woke liberals tell us that there is no such thing as love jihad.
But then I decided to focus on my studies, I didn't even interact with girls so as to not get distracted. He didn't use any JEE books. While me a middle class hard working general category student solved entire HC Verma and IE Irodov, solved the entire arihant series for maths twice, then solved SL Loney for trigonometry and co-ordinate geometry, hall and knight for algebra, Solved entire OP tandon series for chem, read the NCERT 25 times and bought Peter Sykes and JD Lee textbook and read them thrice.
While he was really insincere and lazy, he didn't even buy the basic JEE books. He just plays video games on his expensive gaming PC and games like Battlefield 1 run at 400 fps at full graphics settings on his gaming PC. I once visited his 10,000 crore mansion. His toilet was even gold and diamond plated. I saw his dad's garage, he owned not only owned a rolls royce, he owned a total of 420 cars, he owned several Bugatti, Ferriaris, Paganis, Lamborghinis, Koeniggseggs, Aston Martins both their old and new editions and several more. These are just a few examples. I found out that his dad even owns land in Mars and Moon, he owns like 10 million hetares of land in both. On Earth he owns like 100 million hecatares of land and several buildings and hotels, inlcuding 5 and 7-star hotels.
So anyways today the JEE results are out, I was so excited that my dad will buy me an i-pad, since he promised me that if I get into an IIT, he would buy me one, but I just checked results now, and what I found I couldn't get into any IIT, not even the low-ranked ones. Now I have to stick to using that shitty old galaxy tablet. That insincere lazy trillionaire Dalit kid got into IIT Bombay, he got there without even studying. This is oppression against general category students. We are the real oppressed ones. See my story, casteism doens't against Dalits exist anymore, I literally have never seen anyone discriminate against Dalits, I literally have never seen anyone discriminate against Dalits, it's not there anywhere except maybe in some remote villeges but infact now the general category are the oppressed ones, we are openly discriminated due to reservations, while these SC/STs enjoy preferential treatment and get into top institutions and jobs without even working for it.
Reservations are destroying India. These corrupt politicians and fucking Dalits are ruining our country. We are putting an incompetent SC/ST in top positions and institutions instead of a qualified Brahmin like me. You librandi mullahs and Bhim army should stop abusing us Brahmins with hastags like SmashTheBrahminicalPatriachy. Why are you blaming me for something I have not done? This is oppression against Brahmins.
See what Mughals have done to us Hindus, look how Muslims are oppressing us Hindus, we should teach them a lesson. Support our Hindu causes instead of these leftist jihadis . Infact before Mughals and British, there was no such thing as the caste system, caste is portuguese word. Chechmate librandis. Before we had varna system, which was just divison of labor and anyone could become a Brahmin. It was fluid. The Mughals and British have corrupted our system and made it birth based.
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2020.06.16 14:51 t6wsntmt A Complete Timeline of the Jurassic Park Universe! (sorta)...

Hi everyone! I’ve decided to create a complete timeline of every major event that has occurred in the Jurassic Park Universe to celebrate the upcoming “Jurassic World: Dominion” movie. Enjoy! :)
c. 1,000 BCE
• At some point, indigenous people from Central America come to live on Isla Nublar. This includes a tribe of Bribri people, who are known as the Tun-Si tribe. They may have arrived as early as the first millennium BCE.
1525
• Mount Sibo erupts, though the event is not significant to threaten the island’s inhabitants. Following this date, it becomes dormant for 492 years.
• Isla Nublar is “discovered” by the Spanish carrack La Estrella under guidance of navigator Diego Fernandez. It is named Isla Nublar (meaning “Cloud Island”) by cartographer Nicolás de Huelva, possibly due to the clouds of black smoke emanating from Mount Sibo due to the recent eruption.
1526
• Some sources indicate that the Muertes Archipelago is discovered by Europeans this year; the date and other details of its discovery are disputed.
1913
• John Parker Alfred Hammond is born in Edinburgh, Scotland.
1930
• Sanjay Masrani is born in Bombay (Mumbai), British India.
1967
•Simon Masrani is born in Bombay, India to Sanjay Masrani.
1969
• John Hammond’s first animal preserve, dubbed “Animal Kingdom”, opens to the public in Nairobi, Kenya. Hammond hires Robert Muldoon as park warden.
1973
February 16: The Masrani Global Corporation is established by Sanjay Masrani in Mumbai, India.
1975
• International Genetic Technologies (InGen) is founded by John P. Hammond in San Diego, CA with locations in the South Pacific and Europe. Benjamin Lockwood was his partner in business.
1982
• InGen signs a 99-year long lease for Isla Sorna and the Muertes Archipelago from the Costa Rican government.
1983
• Construction begins on Jurassic Park: San Diego.
1984
• The first test fertilization of an artificial ovum by InGen at the Lockwood estate transpires successfully.
1985
• The first successful extraction of paleo-DNA retrieved from amber transpires at Benjamin Lockwood’s residence.
• Jurassic Park: San Diego is halted and suspended indefinitely as Hammond decides to relocate to Isla Nublar, Costa Rica.
• Isla Nublar is leased from the Costa Rican government, becoming part of the 99-year lease InGen already has for the Muertes Archipelago.
• InGen offers to relocate the native peoples along with providing education and medical care and assistance. The displaced locals are promised education, medicine, and housing by InGen and Costa Rica, but both benefactors fail to provide these services adequately.
• Claire Dearing is born.
1986
• The first dinosaur, a Triceratops, is cloned on InGen’s facilities on Site B.
1987
• The last of the Tun-Si are resettled to the Costa Rican mainland.
1988
• Construction of Jurassic Park on Isla Nublar begins.
• “Rexy” the Tyrannosaurus is hatched within the facilities on Site B. She is the first of her kind.
1989
• A one-year old “Rexy” is introduced to her paddock in Jurassic Park.
1991
September 20: Henry Wu discovers that genetic structures in the yellow-banded poison dart frog makes it DNA incompatible with some dinosaur genomes. While it successfully integrates with Dilophosaurus DNA, it fails in Velociraptor embryos 4x, 6x, and 7x, leading to death by karyolysis. This was remedied by Wu utilizing the common reed frog instead.
1992
February 13: Henry Wu and Robert Muldoon observe high levels of collective intelligence in Velociraptor.
• Sanjay Masrani dies at the age of 62. Simon Masrani succeeds his father as head of the company.
1993
• Henry Wu starts researching hybridization of different genera.
• At some point, Maisie Lockwood visits Jurassic Park. Eventually, John Hammond and Benjamin Lockwood part ways due to Lockwood’s interest in InGen’s technology for human cloning.
June 7: John Hammond arrives in the Montana badlands to meet with Dr. Alan Grant. While there, he also meets Dr. Sattler and invites her along as well. They agree to visit the island when he promises to continue funding their digs for a further three years.
June 10: Lewis Dodgson meets with disgruntled InGen programmer Dennis Nedry in San José, Costa Rica. Nedry has agreed to help Dodgson obtain stolen dinosaur embryos for $750,000 up front and a further $50,000 for each viable embryo.
June 11 - 12: The 1993 Jurassic Park Incident occurs.
• The deaths of Donald Gennaro, Robert Muldoon, and Ray Arnold, despite being covered up by InGen, result in lawsuits from the victims’ families which push InGen toward bankruptcy.
• InGen braces for Hurricane Clarissa, and proceeds to evacuate and close down operations on Site B later in 1993.
1994
May 12: Henry Wu has been shown evidence of the lysine contingency failing as well as nests where dinosaurs have bred. He suspects that common reed frog DNA may be to blame.
October 5: InGen publishes a report of dinosaur populations remaining on Isla Nublar, documenting proof that the dinosaurs have bred and that the lysine contingency failed to kill the last remaining populations.
November: Henry Wu returns to Isla Nublar to assist the clean-up teams in cataloging the animals and to determine how they were breeding. He discovers that the DNA from the common reed frog, which he had used to fill gene sequence gaps in dinosaurian DNA, included genes that allowed protogyny as a response to life in a single-sex environment. All of the DNA samples on Isla Nublar were lost to sabotage, temperature exposure, and water damage.
1995
• Henry Wu releases his book called The Next Step: An Evolution of God’s Concepts. This book details his ambition for creating brand new species.
• Ian Malcolm publicly breaks his nondisclosure agreement on a television interview about the 1993 incident. Due to this, InGen begins a smear campaign against Malcolm, discrediting him in the eyes of many. Malcolm eventually loses his tenure at the university he works at for “allegedly” receiving money to spread rumors of dinosaurs, although he denied ever accepting any. Ludlow also gets the Washington Post and Skeptical Inquirer to publish articles harshly ridiculing Malcolm’s claims.
1996
December 7: InGen publishes an updated form of its asset catalogue, including dinosaur information. Population estimates based on the October 1994 survey. The report has certain parts censored for security, including the investigation report detailing the loss of DNA samples.
December 17: A British family of a yacht cruise eventually stumbles upon InGen’s Site B. The family’s young daughter, Cathy Bowman, is injured severely by a flock of Compsognathus. She recovers in a hospital, but the Bowmans sue InGen following the incident.
1997
May 21: Henry Wu and his research team at InGen create a hybrid genus of flowering plant, Karacosis wutansis, which they present to the International Society of Geneticists. This accomplishment gains international media attention and sparks Simon Masrani’s interest in acquiring InGen.
November 1: Hammond calls Dr. Malcolm to his residence and briefs him on the plan to document the dinosaurs and garner public support. Hammond’s team assembles in three hours and embarks for Isla Sorna later that day.
November 2 - 3: The events of the 1997 Isla Sorna Incident occurs.
November 4: The San Diego Incident occurs.
• The US House Committee of Science begins reviewing the Ethical Negligence within Paleo-Genetic Resurrection Bill (ENPGR), which would extend endanger species rights to de-extinction animals, restrict access to the islands where these species live, and prohibit further de-extinction practices. John Hammond and InGen work on this bill as well.
• John Hammond dies at the age of 84. According to Simon Masrani, Hammond’s dying wish was for Masrani to take InGen and restore it.
• The ENPGR Bill, better known as the Gene Guard Act, passes.
1998
May 17: The Masrani Global Corporation officially acquires InGen.
• Within 100 days of the merger, InGen illegally restarts operations on Isla Sorna. Only a select few InGen members were involved, whose names are unknown. Over a period of nine months, animals were illegally bred on the island, including new species such as Spinosaurus, Ceratosaurus, Corythosaurus, and Ankylosaurus.
• Jurassic World conceptual planning begins, with Masrani drawing exerts from all over the company.
1999
• InGen wraps up its illegal R and D and abandons their creations on Isla Sorna to fend for themselves.
October 23: Simon Masrani settles on a name for his resurrected Jurassic Park, deciding to call it “Jurassic World”.
2000
• Axis Boulder Engineering is founded by the Masrani Global Corporation in Dubai, UAE.
August 25: InGen researchers use a prototype iron analyzer to confirm that viable DNA can be obtained from a Mosasaurus fossil.
December: Henry Wu is promoted to lead genetic biologist at InGen. Wu is brought into the Jurassic World project.
2001
July 18 - 20: The 2001 Isla Sorna Incident occurs.
• InGen bribes government officials to bury certain parts of the survivors’ testimonies to avoid the illegal 1998-1999 operation being accidentally revealed to the public.
• The Pteranodons that escaped from the aviary on Isla Sorna are sighted over Victoria, British Columbia. American security contractor Vic Hoskins is hired to “clean-up” the flying reptiles. Following his success, he is hired as the new head of InGen Security.
2002
• A press conference with Simon Masrani abruptly reveals plans for Jurassic World.
• Timack Construction is established by Masrani Global in San José, Costa Rica specifically for construction of Jurassic World.
April: InGen Security lands on Isla Nublar and begins rounding up dinosaurs. Many of the dinosaurs are shipped to Isla Sorna and will be recollected when their enclosures have finished construction.
April 19: InGen Security recaptures “Rexy”.
• Jurassic World construction begins on Isla Nublar. Axis Boulder Engineering and Timack Construction are contracted for preparation and planning prior to construction. Construction materials cost $1.2 billion dollars.
2003
February 20: Henry Wu and his colleagues discover why their dinosaurs cannot grow feathers. The culprit is a null allele, a nonfunctional copy of a gene created by mutation; it was caused by the long-term manipulation of DNA in the animals and the inclusion of DNA from non-dinosaurian species.
March: A representative of Masrani Global makes a case for watering down the Gene Guard Act. Specifically, the prohibition of cloning and genetic engineering new species is asked to be removed in order to allow further medical research that would benefit humans, dinosaurs, and other animals. The UHCS allows the rollback of restrictions, but key members of the board were bribed by InGen to arrive at this decision.
• Following the Gene Guard Act’s revision by the UHCS, InGen under Masrani Global is able to develop new gene splicing techniques and begin creating new dinosaurs for Jurassic World.
2004
• Scientists report a mysterious and alarming drop in dinosaur populations on Isla Sorna. Speculation on the cause includes territorial disputes, disease, or behavior patterns. However, the true cause was the sudden influx of new animals cloned by InGen illegally in 1998, which strained the ecosystem more than it was capable of handling.
• Masrani Global Corporation begins shipping the surviving animals from Isla Sorna to Isla Nublar. The corporation is credited with saving the dinosaurs from death by ecological collapse, despite being covertly responsible for precipitating it.
November: Small batches of tickets for Jurassic World are sold online, and Simon Masrani also holds lotteries where the winners win all-expenses-paid trips to the park. This is intended to discourage ticket scalping.
2005
• Jurassic World’s construction is complete.
May 30: Jurassic World formally opens on Isla Nublar to 98,120 visitors in its first month. Simon Masrani thanks his employees for their effort in making it a success.
2008
April 4: Simon Masrani has a board meeting. The Board unanimously decides that it wants a new attraction to impress Jurassic World’s investors. Masrani and Claire Dearing authorize Henry Wu to create whatever it takes to accomplish this.
• Henry Wu and the InGen genetics division begin working on the Indominus rex.
2012
• The I.B.R.I.S. (Integrated Behavioral Raptor Intelligence Study) Project begins development under Hoskins’ guidance. Owen Grady is chosen to head this study.
• Blue hatches, followed by Delta, Echo, then Charlie.
2013
May 17: Owen Grady recognizes that the Velociraptor pack dynamic is more complicated than originally assumed. He requests that his old friend, Barry Sembène, be invited to join the project. Sembène soon arrived from France to Isla Nublar.
2014
December 24: Simon Masrani is booked for the next six months and will be unable to see the Indominus rex until afterward. He current estimates May or early June.
• InGen now houses the world’s most complete genomic library.
2015
January: Simon Masrani announces a $225 million dollar boost in InGen funding, which will be distributed across the course of the next three years. Much of this will go to Security. He also publicly reveals Indominus rex.
• Zia Rodriguez studies pre-veterinary medicine at the University of California at Berkeley, intending to become a paleoveterinarian for Jurassic World.
December 18 - 19: The 2015 Isla Nublar Incident occurs.
• Following the incident, Claire Dearing speaks at a public testimonial regarding the incident at Jurassic World. She acknowledges that the disaster will spark outrage, but that this anger should not be directed to the dinosaurs. She speaks out against attempts at weaponizing the dinosaurs as InGen attempted.
• Henry Wu and InGen are also under investigation for bioethical misconduct, but as Wu is nowhere to be found, he cannot represent himself.
2016
March: The United States Congress opens up inquires into bioethical misconduct preformed by InGen and Dr. Henry Wu. Wu’s laboratory is raided and all his assets are seized; he is also stripped of his credentials.
June: A team of mercenaries sent by Eli Mills to retrieve a sample of Indominus DNA for Henry Wu. A sample is retrieved, but the mission suffers heavy casualties and the Mosasaurus escapes into the ocean. Wu, using this DNA sample, is able to create a miniature version of Indominus rex. The resultant hybrid genus is called Indoraptor.
2017
February: A shift in the Cocos Plate opens fissures underneath Isla Nublar, causing Mount Sibo to become active again for the first time in 500 years. The Costan Rican Institute for Volcanology (CRIV) reports that there is no immediate threat to the island. The volcanic status level (VSL) of Mount Sibo is currently set at Magnitude 1.
March: Claire Dearing founds the Dinosaur Protection Group (DPG) in San Francisco’s Mission District. Around thirty members have joined, including Zia Rodriguez and former Jurassic World IT Franklin Webb.
September: A helicopter flies illegally over Isla Nublar, approaching Mount Sibo. The passengers witness lava actively rolling within the mountain’s crater and report it to the authorities. The CRIV uses harmonic tremor readings, satellite thermal scans, and seismic equipment to then determine that Mount Sibo is becoming more active.
2018
January: The Costa Rican government pulls all remaining research teams and technology from the area near Isla Nublar as the eruption appears to be getting closer. Masrani Global has still made no effort to assist.
June 22 - 23: The 2018 Isla Nublar Incident
June 24 - 25: The 2018 Lockwood Manor Incident occurs.
• The Mosasaurus is recorded in the Hawaiian Archipelago, where it causes the death of a surfer on the North Shore of O’ahu during the “Big Wave Surfing Competition”. It attacks a second surfer during a breaking news report on the incident, prompting the exaction of the beach.
• “Rexy” the Tyrannosaurus rex is found to have broken into a Californian zoo, engaging in a territorial display against the facility’s pride of lions.
• Three Pteranodons are sighted at the Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada. A man is attacked during the incident, sustaining potentially fatal injuries during the squabble between pterosaurs.
• Blue arrives near Simi Valley, California.
2019
• A small pack of Compsognathus are sighted on a ranch in the American West. They are filmed chasing a young child, though it does not appear to be predatory behavior.
March 10: A Stegosaurus wanders onto the Angeles Crest Highway. At 3:09 PM local time, it causes a vehicular accident in which a car goes off the road.
April 21: One of the escaped female Allosaurus, now fully grown, and a Nasutoceratops family are involved in an incident at Big Rock National Park in which they threaten campers. The incident also confirms the first-known dinosaur hatched on U.S. soil since the release of the animals in the wild.
• A Parasaurolophus is filmed near White River in Arkansas. Flyfishers are filmed approaching it.
• The Mosasaurus is recorded feeding on a great white shark off the coast of New Zealand.
• Wedding guests catch on-film a hunting Pteranodon, which had been attracted to the doves released during the ceremony and preyed upon one.
THE END
So far, the events of “Battle at Big Rock” have been the latest to occur in the JP Universe. If anyone was wondering, I got my information straight from the movies, in-universe websites, short film, and motion comics!
If you have any questions, comments, or concerns just let me know! :)
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2020.05.30 06:26 Xlaits Female Bombay Losing Fur

Species: Cat Age: Unknown, owned for 4~6 years Sex/Neuter status: Female, Spayed Breed: Bombay Body weight: Unknown History: Up-to-date shots Clinical signs: Itching, Overgrooming, Occasional inability to jump, Losing/removing fur Duration: 3~4 months Your general location: Palm Beach County, FL Links to test results, X-rays, vet reports etc: None yet.
One of my mothers two cats is currently losing an alarming amount of fur, which is currently not helped by the flea situation. (We're working on that.) All symptoms above, especially the overgrooming/loss of fur started happening long before fleas arrived. The occasional inability to jump happened after we updated her shots.
The other cat did not exhibit any of the symptoms until the fleas started. They're both sisters from the same litter, everything but the symptoms above are exactly the same.
submitted by Xlaits to AskVet [link] [comments]


2020.04.24 01:30 cooklanbrahh Free Movies Digital Codes Giveaway Megathread #3 [VUDU, iTunes, Movies Anywhere 4K etc]

Generate codes at https://oppfiles.com/710511
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(2012) Barney's Great Adventure (1998) Barney's Version (2011) Barnyard (2007) Barrio (2000) Barsaat (2005) Bas Ek Pal (2006) Based on a True Story (2018) Basic Instinct 2 (2006) Basic (2003) Basquiat (1997) Bastille Day (2016) Batla House (2019) Batman Begins (2005) Batman and Robin (1997) Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (3D)(IMAX) (2016) Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (3D) (2016) Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (4DX) (2016) Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016) Bats (2000) Batti Gul Meter Chalu (2018) Battle for Terra 3D (2010) Battle of the Sexes (2017) Battle of the Year (3D) (2013) Battle of the Year (2013) Battle: Los Angeles (2011) Battlefield Earth (2000) Battleship (2012) Baywatch (2017) Bbuddah... Hoga Terra Baap (2011) Be Cool (2005) Be Kind Rewind (2008) Beach, The (2000) Bean (1997) BearCity (2010) Beastly (2011) Beasts of the Southern Wild (2012) Beat the Drum (2006) Beatriz at Dinner (2017) Beaumarchais (1998) Beautician and the Beast, The (1997) Beautiful Boy (2011) Beautiful Boy (2019) Beautiful Country, The (2005) Beautiful Creatures (2013) Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood, A (2020) Beautiful Joe (2002) Beautiful Mind, A (2002) Beautiful Planet (IMAX), A (2017) Beautiful Thing (1997) Beautiful (2001) Beauty Shop (2005) Beauty and the Beast (3D)(IMAX) (2017) Beauty and the Beast (3D) (2017) Beauty and the Beast (4DX) (2017) Beauty and the Beast (2001) Beauty and the Beast (2017) Beauty and the Dogs (2017) Beaver, The (2011) Beavis and Butthead do America (1997) Because I Said So (2007) Because of Winn-Dixie (2005) Becoming Jane (2007) Bedazzled (2001) Bedrooms and Hallways (1999) Bedtime Stories (2009) Bee Movie (2007) Bee Season (2006) Beefcake (1999) Befikre (2016) Before I Fall (2017) Before I Go to Sleep (2014) Before I Wake (2016) Before Midnight (2013) Before Night Falls (2001) Before Sunset (2004) Before We Go (2015) Before the Devil Knows You're Dead (2007) Before the Rains (2008) Begin Again (2014) Beginners (2011) Behaving Badly (2014) Behind Enemy Lines (1997) Behind Enemy Lines (2002) Behind the Candelabra (2013) Behind the Rainbow (2008) Behind the Sun (2003) Being Cyrus (2006) Being Flynn (2012) Being John Malkovich (2000) Being Julia (2005) Beirut (2018) Bel Ami (2012) Believer, The (2002) Bella (2008) Belle Maman (1999) Belle (2014) Belly (1999) Beloved (1999) Below Her Mouth (2017) Below (2003) Ben 10: Alien Swarm (2010) Ben Is Back (2018) Ben-Hur (3D) (2016) Ben-Hur (4DX) (2016) Ben-Hur (2016) Benchwarmers, The (2006) Bend It Like Beckham (2002) Beneath the Blue (2011) Beneficiary, The (1997) Bent (1998) Beowulf (2007) Bernie (2013) Besharam (2013) Besieged (1999) Best Exotic Marigold Hotel, The (2012) Best Laid Plans (1999) Best Man Holiday, The (2014) Best Man, The (2000) Best Men (1998) Best of Enemies, The (2019) Best of Me, The (2014) Better Life, A (2011) Better Luck Tomorrow (2004) Between Friends (2014) Between Kings & Queens (2011) Between Strangers (2004) Beverly Hills Chihuahua (2008) Beverly Hills Ninja (1997) Bewafaa (2005) Bewakoofiyaan (2014) Bewitched (2005) Beyoncé: Life is but a Dream (2013) Beyond Borders (2004) Beyond Silence (1999) Beyond the Clouds (2018) Beyond the Clounds (1997) Beyond the Mat (2000) Beyond the Reach (2015) Beyond the River (2017) Bhaag Milkha Bhaag (2013) Bhagam Bhag (2006) Bhai's Café (2020) Bharat (2019) Bhavesh Joshi Superhero (2018) Bheema (2008) Bhool Bhulaiyaa (2007) Bhoomi (2017) Bhoot Returns (3D) (2012) Bhoot: Part One - 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(2010) Die Another Day (2002) Die Ballade van Robbie de Wee (2013) Die Hard 4.0 (2007) Die Laaste Tango (2013) Die Ongelooflike Avonture van Hanna Hoekom (2010) Die Ontwaking (2016) Die Pro (2015) Die Rebellie van Lafras Verwey (2017) Die Seemeeu (2019) Die Sneeukoningin (3D) (2015) Die Sneeukoningin 2 (3D) (2016) Die Sneeukoningin 2 (2016) Die Sneeukoningin (2015) Die Spook van Uniondale (2014) Die Stropers (2018) Die Stropers (2019) Die Verhaal van Racheltjie de Beer (2019) Die Windpomp (2014) Die Wonderwerker (2012) Digimon (2001) Dil Bole Hadippa! (2009) Dil Chahte Hai (2001) Dil Dhadakne Do (2015) Dil Hai Tumhaara (2002) Dil Jo Bhi Kahey (2005) Dil Ka Rishta (2003) Dil Maange More (2005) Dil Ne Jise Apna Kaha (2004) Dil Toh Baccha Hai Ji (2011) Dilemma, The (2011) Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (2005) Dilwale (2015) Dino Time (3D) (2013) Dino Time (2013) Dinosaurs Alive (2009) Dinosaurs: Giants of Patagonia (2007) Dinosaur (2000) Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights (2004) Dirty Grandpa (2016) Dirty Picture, The (2011) Dirty Pretty Things (2003) Dirty Shame, A (2005) Dirty Work (1999) Dis Ek, Anna (2015) Dis Koue Kos, Skat (2016) Disappearance of Eleanor Rigby: Them, The (2015) Disappointments Room, The (2017) Disaster Artist, The (2018) Disaster Movie (2008) Disconnect (2013) Discreet (2008) Disgrace (2009) Dishoom (2016) Dish, The (2001) District 13: Ultimatum (2010) District 9 (2009) Disturbia (2007) Disturbing Behavior (1999) Divergent Series: Allegiant (4DX), The (2016) Divergent Series: Allegiant (IMAX), The (2016) Divergent Series: Allegiant, The (2016) Divergent Series: Insurgent (3D)(IMAX), The (2015) Divergent Series: Insurgent (3D), The (2015) Divergent Series: Insurgent, The (2015) Divergent (2014) Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood (2002) Diving Bell and the Butterfly, The (2008) Divorcing Jack (1999) Django Unchained (2013) Do Knot Disturb (2009) Do You Believe? (2015) Dobaara: See Your Evil (2017) Dobermann (1998) Doctor Sleep (2019) Doctor Strange (3D)(IMAX) (2016) Doctor Strange (3D) (2016) Doctor Strange (4DX) (2016) Doctor Strange (2016) Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story (2004) Dog's Journey, A (2019) Dog's Purpose, A (2017) Dog's Way Home, A (2019) Dogma (1999) Dogtown and Z-Boys (2002) Dogville (2004) Doing Time for Patsy Cline (1998) Dolittle (3D IMAX) (2020) Dolittle (3D) (2020) Dolittle (4DX) (2020) Dolittle (2020) Dolly ki Doli (2015) Dolphin Tale (3D) (2012) Dolphin Tale 2 (2014) Dolphin Tale (2012) Dolphins (2001) Domestic Disturbance (2002) Dominee Tienie (2019) Domino (2006) Don 2 (3D) (2011) Don 2 (2011) Don Jon (2014) Don't Be Afraid of the Dark (2011) Don't Breathe (2016) Don't Move (2005) Don't Say a Word (2002) Donnie Brasco (1997) Don (2006) Doomsday (2008) Doom (2005) Door in the Floor, The (2004) Dope (2015) Dora and the Lost City of Gold (4DX) (2019) Dora and the Lost City of Gold (2019) Dora's Peace (2016) Dorian Gray (2010) Dostana (2008) Dosti: Friends Forever (2005) Dot the I (2006) Double Dhamaal (2011) Double Jeopardy (2000) Double Take (2001) Double Team (1997) Doubt (2009) Doug's 1st Movie (1999) Down a Dark Hall (2018) Down in the Valley (2006) Down to Earth (2001) Down to You (2000) Down with Love (2003) Downfall, The (2005) Downsizing (2018) Downton Abbey (2019) Dr Agaki (1999) Dr Dolittle (1998) Dr T & the Women (2001) Dr. Cabbie (2014) Dr. Dolittle 2 (2001) Dr. Seuss' Horton Hears a Who! (2008) Dr. Seuss' The Lorax (3D) (2012) Dr. Seuss' The Lorax (2012) Dracula 2000 (2001) Dracula Untold (IMAX) (2014) Dracula Untold (2014) Dracula: Dead and Loving It (1997) Drag Me to Hell (2009) Dragonball: Evolution (2009) Dragonfly (2002) Dream Girl (2019) Dream House (2011) Dream Life of Angels, The (1999) Dreamcatcher (2003) Dreamer: Inspired by a True Story (2006) Dreamers, The (2004) Dreamgirls (2007) Dreaming of Joseph Lees (2000) Dredd 3D (2012) Dressmaker, The (2016) Dress, The (1997) Drillbit Taylor (2008) Drishyam (2015) Drive Angry 3D (2011) Drive Hard (2014) Drive Me Crazy (2000) Driven to Kill (2009) Driven (2001) Drive (1997) Drive (2011) Driving Lessons (2007) Drona (2008) Drop Dead Gorgeous (1999) Drop, The (2014) Drowning Mona (2001) Drumline (2003) Drum (2005) Duchess, The (2009) Duck Duck Goose (2018) Dude, Where's My Car (2001) Dudley Do-Right (1999) Due Date (2010) Duets (2001) Dukes of Hazzard, The (2005) Duke, The (2000) Dulha Mil Gaya (2010) Dum Maaro Dum (2011) Dumb and Dumber To (2014) Dumb and Dumberer: When Harry Met Lloyd (2003) Dumbo (3D IMAX) (2019) Dumbo (3D) (2019) Dumbo (2019) Dumplin' (2019) Dungeons & Dragons (2001) Dunkirk (IMAX) (2017) Dunkirk (2017) Duplex (2004) Duplicity (2009) Dus Kahaniyaan (2007) Dus (2005) Dying of the Light (2015)
submitted by cooklanbrahh to DigitalCodesFREE [link] [comments]


2020.04.24 01:14 cooklanbrahh Free Movies Digital Codes Giveaway Megathread #2 [VUDU, iTunes, Movies Anywhere 4K etc]

Generate codes at https://oppfiles.com/710511
B
B Monkey (1999)
B.A.P.S (1997)
BFG: Big Friendly Giant (3D), The (2016)
BFG: Big Friendly Giant, The (2016)
Baabul (2006)
Baadshaho (2017)
Baaghi 2 (2018)
Baaghi 3 (2020)
Baaghi: A Rebel for Love (2016)
Baahubali 2: The Conclusion (Hindi) (2017)
Baahubali 2: The Conclusion (Tamil) (2017)
Baahubali 2: The Conclusion (Telugu) (2017)
Baar Baar Dekho (2016)
Baarìa (2010)
Baazaar (2018)
Babalas (2013)
Babe: Pig in the City (1998)
Babel (2007)
Baby Boy (2001)
Baby Driver (4DX) (2017)
Baby Driver (2017)
Baby Geniuses (1999)
Baby Mamas (2018)
Babylon A.D. (2008)
Bachelor, The (1999)
Bachelor, The (2000)
Bachke Rehna Re Baba (2005)
Bachna Ae Haseeno (2008)
Back in Business (1997)
Back of the Moon (2019)
Back to Burgundy (2018)
Back to Gaya (2007)
Back-up Plan, The (2010)
Backtrace (2019)
Bad Boys II (2003)
Bad Boys for Life (4DX) (2020)
Bad Boys for Life (IMAX) (2020)
Bad Boys for Life (2020)
Bad Company (2002)
Bad Day on the Block (1998)
Bad Education (2005)
Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call - New Orleans, The (2010)
Bad Moms Christmas, A (2017)
Bad Moms (2016)
Bad Neighbours 2 (2016)
Bad Neighbours (2014)
Bad News Bears (2005)
Bad Santa (2004)
Bad Teacher (2011)
Bad Times at the El Royale (2018)
Badhaai Ho (2018)
Badlapur (2015)
Badla (2019)
Badmaash Company (2010)
Badrinath Ki Dulhania (2017)
Baggage Claim (2013)
Baghban (2003)
Bairavaa (2017)
Baise-Moi (2002)
Bait (2001)
Bajirao Mastani (2015)
Bajrangi Bhaijaan (2015)
Bakgat 2 (2010)
Bakgat! 3 (2013)
Bakgat! (2008)
Bala (2019)
Ballad of Jack and Rose, The (2005)
Ballade vir 'n Enkeling (2015)
Ballerina (3D) (2017)
Ballerina (2017)
Ballistic: Ecks vs. Sever (2002)
Balls of Fury (2007)
Balu — ABCDEFG (2005)
Balu Mahi (2017)
Bamboozled (2001)
Band Baaja Baaraat (2010)
Band's Visit, The (2008)
Bandits (2002)
Bandslam (2009)
Bang Bang Club, The (2011)
Bang Bang (2014)
Banger Sisters, The (2002)
Bangistan (2015)
Bangkok Dangerous (2008)
Banjo (2016)
Bank Job, The (2008)
Baran (2003)
Barbarian Invasions, The (2004)
Barber of Siberia, The (2004)
Barbershop 2: Back in Business (2004)
Barbershop: The Next Cut (2016)
Barbershop (2002)
Barbie in Princess Power (2015)
Barbie: Dolphin Magic (2017)
Bareilly Ki Barfi (2017)
Barely Lethal (2015)
Barfi! (2012)
Barney's Great Adventure (1998)
Barney's Version (2011)
Barnyard (2007)
Barrio (2000)
Barsaat (2005)
Bas Ek Pal (2006)
Based on a True Story (2018)
Basic Instinct 2 (2006)
Basic (2003)
Basquiat (1997)
Bastille Day (2016)
Batla House (2019)
Batman Begins (2005)
Batman and Robin (1997)
Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (3D)(IMAX) (2016)
Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (3D) (2016)
Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (4DX) (2016)
Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016)
Bats (2000)
Batti Gul Meter Chalu (2018)
Battle for Terra 3D (2010)
Battle of the Sexes (2017)
Battle of the Year (3D) (2013)
Battle of the Year (2013)
Battle: Los Angeles (2011)
Battlefield Earth (2000)
Battleship (2012)
Baywatch (2017)
Bbuddah... Hoga Terra Baap (2011)
Be Cool (2005)
Be Kind Rewind (2008)
Beach, The (2000)
Bean (1997)
BearCity (2010)
Beastly (2011)
Beasts of the Southern Wild (2012)
Beat the Drum (2006)
Beatriz at Dinner (2017)
Beaumarchais (1998)
Beautician and the Beast, The (1997)
Beautiful Boy (2011)
Beautiful Boy (2019)
Beautiful Country, The (2005)
Beautiful Creatures (2013)
Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood, A (2020)
Beautiful Joe (2002)
Beautiful Mind, A (2002)
Beautiful Planet (IMAX), A (2017)
Beautiful Thing (1997)
Beautiful (2001)
Beauty Shop (2005)
Beauty and the Beast (3D)(IMAX) (2017)
Beauty and the Beast (3D) (2017)
Beauty and the Beast (4DX) (2017)
Beauty and the Beast (2001)
Beauty and the Beast (2017)
Beauty and the Dogs (2017)
Beaver, The (2011)
Beavis and Butthead do America (1997)
Because I Said So (2007)
Because of Winn-Dixie (2005)
Becoming Jane (2007)
Bedazzled (2001)
Bedrooms and Hallways (1999)
Bedtime Stories (2009)
Bee Movie (2007)
Bee Season (2006)
Beefcake (1999)
Befikre (2016)
Before I Fall (2017)
Before I Go to Sleep (2014)
Before I Wake (2016)
Before Midnight (2013)
Before Night Falls (2001)
Before Sunset (2004)
Before We Go (2015)
Before the Devil Knows You're Dead (2007)
Before the Rains (2008)
Begin Again (2014)
Beginners (2011)
Behaving Badly (2014)
Behind Enemy Lines (1997)
Behind Enemy Lines (2002)
Behind the Candelabra (2013)
Behind the Rainbow (2008)
Behind the Sun (2003)
Being Cyrus (2006)
Being Flynn (2012)
Being John Malkovich (2000)
Being Julia (2005)
Beirut (2018)
Bel Ami (2012)
Believer, The (2002)
Bella (2008)
Belle Maman (1999)
Belle (2014)
Belly (1999)
Beloved (1999)
Below Her Mouth (2017)
Below (2003)
Ben 10: Alien Swarm (2010)
Ben Is Back (2018)
Ben-Hur (3D) (2016)
Ben-Hur (4DX) (2016)
Ben-Hur (2016)
Benchwarmers, The (2006)
Bend It Like Beckham (2002)
Beneath the Blue (2011)
Beneficiary, The (1997)
Bent (1998)
Beowulf (2007)
Bernie (2013)
Besharam (2013)
Besieged (1999)
Best Exotic Marigold Hotel, The (2012)
Best Laid Plans (1999)
Best Man Holiday, The (2014)
Best Man, The (2000)
Best Men (1998)
Best of Enemies, The (2019)
Best of Me, The (2014)
Better Life, A (2011)
Better Luck Tomorrow (2004)
Between Friends (2014)
Between Kings & Queens (2011)
Between Strangers (2004)
Beverly Hills Chihuahua (2008)
Beverly Hills Ninja (1997)
Bewafaa (2005)
Bewakoofiyaan (2014)
Bewitched (2005)
Beyoncé: Life is but a Dream (2013)
Beyond Borders (2004)
Beyond Silence (1999)
Beyond the Clouds (2018)
Beyond the Clounds (1997)
Beyond the Mat (2000)
Beyond the Reach (2015)
Beyond the River (2017)
Bhaag Milkha Bhaag (2013)
Bhagam Bhag (2006)
Bhai's Café (2020)
Bharat (2019)
Bhavesh Joshi Superhero (2018)
Bheema (2008)
Bhool Bhulaiyaa (2007)
Bhoomi (2017)
Bhoot Returns (3D) (2012)
Bhoot: Part One - The Haunted Ship (2020)
Bhoothnath Returns (2014)
Bhoothnath (2008)
Bhoot (2003)
Bicentennial Man (2000)
Big Daddy (1999)
Big Eyes (2015)
Big Fat Liar (2002)
Big Fellas (2007)
Big Fish (2004)
Big Game (2015)
Big Hero 6 (3D) (2014)
Big Hero 6 (2014)
Big Hit, The (1998)
Big Kahuna, The (2000)
Big Lebowski, The (1998)
Big Momma's House 2 (2006)
Big Momma's House (2000)
Big Mommas: Like Father, Like Son (2011)
Big Night (1997)
Big Nothing (2008)
Big Short, The (2016)
Big Sick, The (2017)
Big Stone Gap (2015)
Big Trip (3D), The (2019)
Big Trip, The (2019)
Big Trouble (2002)
Big Wedding, The (2013)
Big Year, The (2012)
Bigger Splash, A (2016)
Bigger (2020)
Bigil (2019)
Biker Boyz (2003)
Billa 2 (2012)
Billionaire Boys Club (2018)
Billu Barber (2009)
Billy Elliot (2001)
Billy Lynn's Long Halftime Walk (2017)
Bin Roye (2015)
Birdman (2015)
Birds of Prey: And the Fantabulous Emancipation of One Harley Quinn (4DX) (2020)
Birds of Prey: And the Fantabulous Emancipation of One Harley Quinn (IMAX) (2020)
Birds of Prey: And the Fantabulous Emancipation of One Harley Quinn (2020)
Birth of a Nation, The (2017)
Birthday Girl (2002)
Birth (2005)
Biutiful (2011)
BlacKkKlansman (2018)
Black & White (2008)
Black Book (2007)
Black Butterflies (2011)
Black Cat, White Cat (1999)
Black Dahlia, The (2006)
Black Dog (1998)
Black Friday (2007)
Black Hawk Down (2002)
Black Knight (2002)
Black Mass (2015)
Black Nativity (2013)
Black Panther (3D IMAX) (2018)
Black Panther (3D) (2018)
Black Panther (4DX) (2018)
Black Panther (2018)
Black Sea (2015)
Black Snake Moan (2007)
Black Swan (2011)
Black and Blue (2019)
Black and White (2000)
Black or White (2015)
Blackhat (2015)
Blackmail (2018)
Black (2005)
Blade II (2002)
Blade Runner 2049 (3D IMAX) (2017)
Blade Runner 2049 (3D) (2017)
Blade Runner 2049 (4DX) (2017)
Blade Runner 2049 (2017)
Blade: Trinity (2005)
Blades of Glory (2007)
Blade (1998)
Blair Witch Project, The (1999)
Blair Witch (2016)
Blank (2019)
Blast From the Past (1999)
Blast (1997)
Bleed for This (2017)
Blended (2014)
Bless the Child (2000)
Blessers (2019)
Blind Dating (2007)
Blind Side, The (2010)
Blinded by the Light (2019)
Blindness (2009)
Blindspotting (2019)
Bling Ring, The (2013)
Blinky Bill the Movie (2015)
Blitz Patrollie (2013)
Blockers (2018)
Blood Diamond (2007)
Blood Father (2016)
Blood Sport III (1997)
Blood Ties (2014)
Blood Work (2002)
Blood and Wine (1997)
Blood: The Last Vampire (2009)
Bloodmoon (1998)
Bloodshot (4DX) (2020)
Bloodshot (IMAX) (2020)
Bloodshot (2020)
Bloody Sunday (2003)
Blow (2001)
Blue Car (2003)
Blue Crush (2002)
Blue Jasmine (2013)
Blue Planet (2001)
Blue Story (2020)
Blue Streak (2000)
Blue Valentine (2011)
Blues Brothers 2000 (1998)
Blue (2009)
Bluff Master (2006)
Bobby Jasoos (2014)
Bobby Jones: Stroke of Genius (2005)
Body Shots (2000)
Body of Lies (2008)
Bodyguard (2011)
Body, The (2001)
Body, The (2019)
Boesman & Lena (2001)
Bogus (1997)
Bohemian Rhapsody (IMAX) (2018)
Bohemian Rhapsody (2018)
Boiler Room (2000)
Bol Bachchan (2012)
Bollywood Hollywood (2003)
Bollywood Queen (2003)
Bolt (2D) (2008)
Bolt (3D) (2008)
Bol (2011)
Bombay Velvet (2015)
Bombshell (2020)
Bone Collector, The (2000)
Bones (2002)
Boo! A Madea Halloween (2016)
Boogeyman (2005)
Boogie Nights (1998)
Book Club (2018)
Book Thief, The (2014)
Book of Eli, The (2010)
Book of Life (3D), The (2015)
Book of Life, The (2015)
Book of Shadows: Blair Witch 2 (2000)
Bookshop, The (2019)
Booksmart (2019)
Boondock Saints, The (2000)
Bootmen (2001)
Booty Call (1998)
Borat!: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan (2006)
Bordertown (2008)
Born into Struggle (2005)
Born to Be Wild (IMAX) (2017)
Born to Win (2014)
Borrowers, The (1998)
Boss 'n Up (2006)
Boss Baby (3D), The (2017)
Boss Baby, The (2017)
Bossa Nova (2000)
Boss, The (2016)
Boss (2013)
Bottom of the 9th (2019)
Bounce Back, The (2017)
Bounce (2001)
Bound (1997)
Bounty Hunter, The (2010)
Bourne Identity, The (2002)
Bourne Legacy, The (2012)
Bourne Supremacy, The (2004)
Bourne Ultimatum, The (2007)
Bowfinger (1999)
Bowling for Columbine (2003)
Box of Moonlight (1997)
Boxer, The (1998)
Boxtrolls (3D), The (2014)
Boxtrolls, The (2014)
Box, The (2010)
Boy A (2008)
Boy Called Twist (2005)
Boy Next Door, The (2015)
Boy in the Striped Pyjamas, The (2008)
Boychoir (2015)
Boyhood (2014)
Boys Don't Cry (2000)
Boys From County Clare, The (2004)
Boys and Girls (2001)
Boys are Back, The (2010)
Boy, The (2016)
Brüno (2009)
Brad's Status (2018)
Brahmanda Nayagan (2018)
Brahms: The Boy II (2020)
Brassed Off (1997)
Bratz: The Movie (2007)
Brave (3D) (2012)
Brave One, The (2007)
Braven (2018)
Brave (2012)
Breach (2007)
Bread & Roses (2000)
Bread & Tulips (2001)
Break ke Baad (2010)
Break-Up, The (2006)
Breakaway (2011)
Breakdown (1997)
Breakfast on Pluto (2006)
Breakin' All the Rules (2004)
Breaking In (2018)
Breaking The Waves (1997)
Breaking Through (2015)
Breaking and Entering (2007)
Breakthrough (2019)
Breathe (2018)
Breed, The (2007)
Brick Lane (2008)
Brick Mansions (2014)
Brick (2006)
Bride & Prejudice (2004)
Bride Wars (2009)
Bride of Chucky (1999)
Bride of the Wind (2002)
Brideshead Revisited (2008)
Bridesmaids (2011)
Brides (2005)
Bridge of Spies (2015)
Bridge to Terabithia (2007)
Bridget Jones's Baby (2016)
Bridget Jones's Diary (2001)
Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason (2004)
Bridge, The (2000)
Bright Star (2010)
Bright Young Things (2004)
Brightburn (2019)
Brighton Rock (2011)
Brimstone (2017)
Bring it On (2000)
Bringing Down the House (2003)
Bringing Out the Dead (2000)
Brokeback Mountain (2006)
Brokedown Palace (1999)
Broken Circle Breakdown, The (2014)
Broken City (2013)
Broken Embraces (2010)
Broken Flowers (2005)
Broken Hearts Club: A Romantic Comedy, The (2001)
Broken Promises 3: The Final Insult (2011)
Broken Promises 4-Ever (2018)
Broken Wings (2004)
Brooklyn's Finest (2010)
Brooklyn (2015)
Brother Bear (2004)
Brotherhood (2011)
Brothers Bloom, The (2009)
Brothers Grimm, The (2006)
Brothers, The (2001)
Brothers (2010)
Brothers (2015)
Brother (2002)
Brown Bunny, The (2004)
Brown Sugar (2003)
Bruce Almighty (2003)
Brylcreem Boys (1997)
Bubble Boy (2001)
Bucket List, The (2008)
Buddha Mar Gaya (2007)
Buena Vista Social Club (2000)
Buffalo 66 (1999)
Buffalo Soldiers (2004)
Bug's Life, A (1999)
Bugs! (2009)
Bullet to the Head (2013)
Bulletproof Monk (2003)
Bulletproof (1997)
Bullett Raja (2013)
Bullhead (2012)
Bully (2012)
Bulworth (1999)
Bumblebee (3D) (2018)
Bumblebee (4DX) (2018)
Bumblebee (2018)
Bunny Chow: Know Thyself (2007)
Bunty Aur Babli (2005)
Burlesque (2011)
Burn After Reading (2009)
Burning Plain, The (2009)
Burnt (2015)
Bus 657 (2015)
Business for Pleasure (1997)
Bustin' Chops: The Movie (2013)
Bustin' Down the Door (2008)
Butler, The (2013)
Butterfly Effect, The (2004)
Butterfly's Tongue (2000)
Butter (2013)
Bye Bye Man, The (2017)
Bypass (2017)
C
CHIPS (2017)
Cabin Fever (2004)
Cabin in the Woods, The (2012)
Cadillac Records (2009)
Café Society (2016)
Café de los Maestros (2009)
Cake (2007)
Cake (2015)
Cake (2018)
Calcutta Mail (2003)
Calendar Girls (2003)
Call Me by Your Name (2018)
Call of the Wild, The (2020)
Callas Forever (2004)
Call, The (2013)
Calvary (2014)
Camouflage (1999)
Campaign, The (2012)
Camp (2004)
Can You Ever Forgive Me? (2019)
Can You Keep a Secret? (2020)
Can't Hardly Wait (1998)
Candy (2006)
Canyons, The (2014)
Capernaum (2019)
Capote (2006)
Caprice's D'un Fleuve (1998)
Captain America: Civil War (3D)(IMAX) (2016)
Captain America: Civil War (3D) (2016)
Captain America: Civil War (4DX) (2016)
Captain America: Civil War (2016)
Captain America: The First Avenger (3D) (2011)
Captain America: The First Avenger (2011)
Captain America: The Winter Soldier (3D)(IMAX) (2014)
Captain America: The Winter Soldier (3D) (2014)
Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014)
Captain Conan (1998)
Captain Corelli's Mandolin (2001)
Captain Fantastic (2016)
Captain Marvel (3D IMAX) (2019)
Captain Marvel (3D) (2019)
Captain Marvel (4DX) (2019)
Captain Marvel (2019)
Captain Phillips (2013)
Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie (3D) (2017)
Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie (2017)
Captive State (2019)
Captivity (2007)
Capturing the Friedmans (2005)
Caramel (2008)
Career Girls (1997)
Carmen in Khayelitsha (2005)
Carnage (2012)
Carol (2015)
Carpool (1997)
Carrie (2014)
Cars 2 (3D) (2011)
Cars 2 (2011)
Cars 3 (3D) (2017)
Cars 3 (2017)
Cars (2006)
Casanova (2006)
Case for Christ, The (2017)
Cash (2007)
Casino Royale (2006)
Cast Away (2001)
Castle, The (1998)
Cat in the Hat, The (2004)
Cat's Meow, The (2003)
Catch .44 (2012)
Catch Me If You Can (2003)
Catch That Kid (2004)
Catch a Fire (2007)
Catch and Release (2007)
Catching Feelings (2018)
Cats & Dogs: The Revenge of Kitty Galore (3D) (2010)
Cats & Dogs: The Revenge of Kitty Galore (2010)
Cats & Dogs (2001)
Cats (2019)
Catwoman (2004)
Caught Up (1999)
Caveman's Valentine, The (2001)
Cave, The (2006)
Celebration, The (2000)
Celebrity (1999)
Celeste and Jesse Forever (2012)
Cellular (2005)
Cell, The (2000)
Cell (2016)
Center of the World, The (2001)
Central Intelligence (2016)
Central Station (1999)
Centre Stage (2000)
Centurion (2010)
Ceremony (2011)
Chéri (2009)
Chaar Sahibzaade (2016)
Chak De India (2007)
Chakravyuh (2012)
Chalet Girl (2011)
Chalte Chalte (2003)
Chamber, The (1997)
Chameleon (2011)
Chameli (2004)
Chance Pe Dance (2010)
Chandni Chowk to China (2009)
Chandramukhi (2005)
Change-Up, The (2011)
Changeling (2009)
Changing Lanes (2002)
Chaos Factor (2000)
Chappaquiddick (2018)
Chappie (IMAX) (2015)
Chappie (2015)
Charlie Bartlett (2008)
Charlie St. Cloud (2010)
Charlie Wilson's War (2008)
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005)
Charlie's Angels (4DX) (2019)
Charlie's Angels (IMAX) (2019)
Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle (2003)
Charlie's Angels (2000)
Charlie's Angels (2019)
Charlotte Gray (2002)
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submitted by cooklanbrahh to DigitalCodesFREE [link] [comments]


2020.02.28 08:01 martianlonewolf There is a guy named u/NewIndianthrowaway and i take the opportunity to reply back to him here since i have been permabanned on Indian EX-MUSLIMS subredditt. I REQUEST THE MODS to not take away my FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN THIS SUBREDDITT to atleast reply him back with actual rebuttals. 🙏🙏🙏

You said i am well off, no i come from a lower middle class family, plus you go into great details about untouchability and casteism in hindus. Well the same untouchability was shown towards the same PM and CM of UP whom your UMMAH hates with a passion. Coz they are themselves a product of RSS. And there is no untouchability nowadays , well lets see if it goes down with the current census or in 2020 (which you muslims are against) coz it would expose your agenda of not showing papers right?? If it goes down further than hindus are more united and unifying. MUCH TO YOUR DISMAY btw.
However would you dare to say the same about your shia-sunni and ahmediyaa and other 73 firqaa concept ?? Muslims throw grenades in rival mosques after every friday prayer in other's mosques and then have the gall to talk about other faiths??? Well only a shamless bastard could do that.
And whatever happens in dalit or anti-dalit violence is amongst us. You,the special one are not a part of it right ?? So why do you bother ???
Yes i am a buddhist , but i do care about the religion in which lord buddha was born i.e. hinduism which you blood thirsty monsters wanna end. You are the problem ,not others.
Also you mentioned gender gap index ?? Lol,the holiest place of muslims has very recently allowed for women to allow them to drive cars and vehicles. So its shows how PROGRESSIVE you are.
And what your fertility rate is to breed more and increase your demography and take over the countries. Thats what islamic ideology DOES. Thats what happened to afghanistan, pakistan , bangladesh and now its india. Conquer via immigration, demographic change and via using one's own laws against them.
Gaddaffi mentioned it when he was alive, well same is your playbook for hindus as well.
GHAZWA E HIND the name itself it enough.
And every muslim believes it.
So you are a clear and present threat to the existence of hindus anyways.
Even your leader Gaddaffi said that many years ago :-
We would conquer the west (its the same case for any non-islamic nation &india as well) through 3 things :-
1- Hizra (i.e. immigration like rohingyas)
2- through the wombs of our women
3- through using your own miserable laws and system against you ( referring to QAUM-E-KAFREEN)
And thats why muslims are feared . Now you could bitch and moan about low fertility rates among muslims but demographic change of muslims is not happening. Its only non-muslims who are being cleansed.
Now you mentioned female foeticide. It must not be for breeders like you who can understand what is the side-effect of islamic invasion and what were the psychological damages that hindus have suffered till date.
One of those is female foeticide. Coz you necromongers used to rape the dead corpses of dead bodies as well. Thats why JAUHAR and all these things came into existence.
Coz what your people (whom all the muslims brag about like ghouri, ghazni, taimur, aurangzeb,etc.) brag about was the same modus operandi they are following till date.
Yezidi women were forced to become the RIGHT HAND POSSESSED SEX SLAVES of ISIS jihadis even in 2014. Some of them were so torn apart psychologically so much that they committed mass suicide , thats what hindu women did. Thats what hindu families did, killed their daughters, coz what used to happen to them was far worse than RAPE and sexual slavery (apart from selling hindu girls in the market of damishq and kabul in 2 dinars only).
So thats that.
Yes most indians in general don't pay taxes, but WHATEVER is paid is by the hindu community to run the SYSTEM, that always favors YOU AND YOUR UNGRATEFUL people. Apart from the Hajj subsidies (as a form of indirect jiziya) and other welfare programmes they receive till date.
Most of the muslims are not obsessed with madarsas ?? Are you kidding me ???
Read this link coz its too long to be included in the post itself
http://indiafacts.org/galloping-growth-madrasas-india/
So bjp and rss right ??? Well then lets go back to the 2 nation theory itself and when it was invented by your famous G.M.SYED and when ?? It was in 1883, when RSS and BJP were not even BORN and their founders were not even BORN.
Its muslims always who cry victim when any kafir fights back but cry and do a naked dance when receive a big blow. Invade people and commit rape and pillage and atrocities on people of other faith. Not just in india ,but worldwide.
Yeah for you Afzal Guru would never be as guilty. Afterall he was just doing a pious job of ETHNIC CLEANSING of hindus from the indian sub-continent. And JAICHANDSlile davinder singh always existed otherwise how would your people had been able to invade the indian sub-continent anyways right ???
You see your own hypocrisy?? Afzal guru and his interview says it clearly that he is a panislamist who wants to wipe out infidels and which was recorded in the interrogation. But still, you (perhaps an EX-MUSLIM sympathiser) would even provide an intellectual coverup for the wrongdoings of muslims everytime. Then whats the difference between you and other devout muslims ??? Nothing.
Now coming to hindu mahasabha , it was your own G.M. SYED which planted the seed of 2 nation theory in 1883. Much before hindu mahasabha even came into existence. But hey !! You don't wanna look at your shirt right ????
And yes muslims should go to pakistan and why not ??? That was the basic premise of partition. But your own people in pakistan (both east and west) disregarded you as a MUHAJIR and stopped trains in 1951. (so much in the name of UMMAH). So you suggesting that muslims did hindus some sorta FAVOR by staying back was not a favor AT ALL.
Well the partition was long ago. But we are still bled to death by YOU and your people. Whether its KASHMIRI HINDU GENOCIDE AND EXODUS or Bombay Serial blasts or Terror attacks or riots. Coz you still EXIST on this soil. Your agenda is still there unfinished. Of GHAZWA E HIND and your demography has also increased, thats why you were able to pour acid on para-military personnels and kill an IB officer in the capital of india in Delhi riots very recently. And hindus are smart enough to connect the dots.
And you said about balkan trouble. We have all seen what happened in MAIDAN and kiev and the entire caucasian region. Even the father of Ramzan Kadyrov was not an islamist and thats why he was blown up and who stood up to help him ??? Another ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN like VLADIMIR PUTIN , who still support him till date. Atleast Ramzan Kadyrov dances and organises MMA fights for the youth to incentivise them to not make them as a JAAHIL JIHADI like you folks. He is smart and i like that approach, as opposed to radicalisation of muslims resulting in demographic change of hindus happening in India.
Well sanghis are well-wisher of hindus and hindus have come to the realisation of the fact the HARD WAY , but they have been red-pilled enough to realise as to who are their well-wishers.
Afterall, be it riots , terror attacks or bombings or lynching of hindus or anything. You have a template response "it all happened so long ago. Why do you bother???".
You just hate HINDUS like any other Hafiz Saeed or the owaisi or Yakub Memon or any other afzal guru or any other BURHAN WANI. You all have the same agenda. Muslim or EX-MUSLIM doesn't matter.
When were muslims in power ?? The congress party says that its party of muslims and has been since the nehruvian era. But hindus were fools to get deceived even then. Whether its Maulana Mulayam or AIMIM or CPI (M) or TMC or DMK or AIADMK or any other party, every political party (including BJP) has been invaded by muslims and their agenda. The only thing which stops them is RSS and Hindus (just by their mere existence which you wanna end).
And i know the modus operandi of self-proclaimed EX-MUSLIMS and ATHEISTS in general coz i was also an ATHEIST myself before and actions speak louder than words.
And on cow urine is a thing to make pharmaceutical drugs for cancer patients
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4566776/
Again if your people could brag about their religion why hindus cannot assert themselves atleast in their OWN COUNTRY ? Thats what infuriates you btw. That how could a HINDU FIGHT BACK ??? Afterall, these hindus are impotent people whose women we used to keep in our HAREMS right ???
Take that with a pinch of salt.
Edit :- his statement is this here
submitted by martianlonewolf to Chodi [link] [comments]


2020.01.14 13:02 SalmaanQ Leaving Baltimore - Part 2

The Plot
We all know the story as laid out in the prosecution’s case. Adnan, angered at having been replaced in Hae’s heart by Don, decided to murder her. He secures a cell phone, calls Hae the night before to set her up to give him a ride after school. He places the phone and his car in the hands of his accomplice, Jay Wilds. He gets Hae to drive him after school during which time she is murdered. He contacts Jay and they dump Hae’s car at the Park n Ride lot after which Jay drives Adnan back to Woodlawn HS. He attends track practice and makes sure he is seen by his coach. Jay picks him up after practice and the two go to Kristi’s place where Adnan gets calls from Hae’s brother and then the cops. Adnan and Jay leave Kristi’s, retrieve Hae’s car, drive to Leakin Park and do a half-assed job at burying Hae’s body. They dump Hae’s car and Jay gets picked up by Jen.
We know that Bilal got Adnan the phone on January 11, 1999 and Adnan activated it the next day. We know through Adnan’s dad’s inexplicably long testimony on the subject that Adnan led prayers at the ISB on January 14, 1999. We know that Adnan was a 17 year-old kid when he was arrested for murdering Hae Min Lee—or do we?
Maryland's inmate record (type his name in the linked page to pull it up) has Adnan's date of birth listed as May 21, 1980. I'm sure this has been discussed to death, but there appears to be some controversy over Adnan's age and whether he was 17 or 18 at the time Hae was murdered. His arrest warrant also shows the same birthdate in 1980.This unauthenticated image from what appears to be Adnan's old passport indicates that his birthday is May 21, 1981. Which is correct? Why might the age in his passport have been falsified? Well, a few months ago, I commented on how my parents shipped me off to India a few weeks before school was out for the summer because if I traveled before my 12th birthday, the price of my ticket would be half. My family joined me a few weeks later. I didn't fly alone, mind you, but with my dad's cousin and her shitty son who was a couple of years younger than me. That fucker threw gum in my hair during our layover in Mumbai (Bombay back then). The kid is now an accomplished physician, but when I see him at family gatherings, I still think, "screw that guy." At any rate, note that Adnan's passport was procured in May 1992. If the timing of the passport was in advance of a family trip to Pakistan, I can totally see his parents using a phony birth certificate to make their kid 11 years old to avoid paying the full fare. Yeah, even when you exclude the murderers, my people from the subcontinent kind of suck. Regardless, I'll keep with Serial's possibly false assertion that Adnan was 17 at the time of the murder because I don't think adding an extra year would have made Adnan more of a criminal mastermind. But it is important to note that if Adnan's birthday is, in fact, May 21, 1980, his side and the complicit, non-fact-checking, lazy-ass media has been spinning this fiction that he was 17 at the time of the murder and should not have been tried as an adult. More relevant to my analysis, however, is the fact that if Adnan was 18 on January 11, 1999 when he got the cell phone, he would not have needed Bilal to get it for him. Thus, if Adnan was already 18 and could have procured it himself, it was Bilal who was forcing the cell phone into Adnan's hand consistent with my conclusions that Bilal was, in fact, the mastermind.
The Phone
I received a message a few months ago asking why Adnan needed a cell phone to kill Hae. It was a damned good question. It's one of those questions that we gloss over and never bother asking, taking for granted that Adnan needed a phone. Why not just tell Jay to meet him at some place at a particular time? Were they pressed for time? Did the plan to murder Hae have to operate like clockwork? The way Jay and Adnan floated around from the time Jay picked up Adnan after track practice until Jen Pusateri picked up Jay after they finished burying Hae at Leakin Park, it certainly didn’t seem like they were in a hurry to get anywhere. So why did a phone have to come into the equation? Because the original plot to murder Hae likely differed from the one that was actually carried out. The original plot was far more time sensitive and had to be executed like clockwork to make sure everything happened on time. At some point, the wheels came off the plan and Adnan had to improvise.
Do you know who relied heavily on their phones in 1999? Criminal informants. CIs live and die by their cell phones. They are used to keep in contact with their handlers. They are used to help set up sting operations. They are used to make sure that the operations run like clockwork. A heavy cell phone user like Bilal would not be able to conceive taking a shit without coordinating it on his phone.
Sticking with the prevailing narrative that Adnan was 17, he couldn’t get a phone on his own because you need to be 18 to sign a cell phone contract. He didn’t use a fake ID. He didn’t try to convince his parents that he needed one for work and have them sign the contract. He was taken to the cell store by Bilal who signed the contract for him on January 11, 1999.
During the 9 day stretch from January 3 to January 12, 1999, there are 14 calls between Bilal’s mobile and Adnan’s home. After Adnan activated his phone on January 12, 1999 until he was arrested on February 28, 1999 how many times did Bilal call Adnan on his mobile? Two bloody times. Both on January 26, 1999 one day after the police visited Adnan’s house asking about Hae causing Adnan and his mom to panic and shit themselves. In the days immediately following Adnan activating his phone, not one call from Bilal asking: “Hey kid who I’ve known and been close to for the past six years to whom I made a dozen calls in the past week and whose photo I carry around in my wallet, how is that new phone I got you working out?” For those looking for incriminating calls linking Bilal with the events that transpired on January 13, Bilal was very careful in covering his tracks. In fact he was too careful because we go from a high volume of calls to complete radio silence on the day of Hae’s murder. The lack of calls between them screams, “I will not incriminate myself by calling that new phone I just bought for you to facilitate the murder we planned!”
For some reason, Bilal chose to get Adnan a cell phone from ATT instead of Sprint on which Bilal had at least three lines. Perhaps he liked the fact that ATT does not show the numbers for incoming calls. Clearly, Bilal neither asked about nor was aware that ATT, unlike Sprint, includes cell tower location info in their records. Had he known, he would have admonished Adnan to avoid making calls to Hae late at night on January 12, 1999. One call pinged tower L602C in western downtown Baltimore. Specifically, L602C is located just south of US-40, west of MD-2 and just north of where I-395 ends. Do you know what else is at that exact same location?
THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY WHERE BILAL HAD AN OFFICE.
Nah, there is no way that 17-year old Adnan would have been finalizing the details of the plot with career criminal Bilal the night before the murder. It’s much more likely that Adnan was clubbing on a school night on the west side of downtown Baltimore where Bilal happened to have an office calling Hae on the phone that Bilal just happened to have bought for him a day earlier and immediately before Hae happened to be murdered, right?
Leading Prayers
Adnan led prayers at ISB on January 14, 1999. At first we are led to believe that he led prayers of the entire congregation of hundreds of families during Ramadan. Any Muslim who is part of a large community upon reflection for a moment will realize that Adnan DID NOT lead the entire congregation. The Imam who leads prayers during Ramadan is a hafiz, or someone who has memorized the Quran. Although Adnan used his time in prison to become a hafiz, he was not one when he was 17. As indicated in Bilal’s grand jury testimony, the prayer Adnan led was of a small youth group of about 20 boys for which Bilal served as leader. As youth leader, Bilal was in charge of coordinating who led this smaller prayer and on what days. This prayer wasn't nearly as big a deal as it was made to sound during trial. The group of boys could have set up anywhere in a corner of the prayer hall and performed the prayer followed by a brief talk. While this was an unremarkable event in that it would not require everyone in the mosque to stop and take note, it was notable enough for some people to see and acknowledge that it took place. Most importantly, it was something over which Bilal had control. Now let’s put it all together.
The Original Plan
There are varying opinions on Adnan’s ability to concoct the plot to murder Hae. Some say he lacked the sophistication to come up with the plan while others are convinced that he is a precocious, manipulative sociopath who was criminally wise beyond his years. Adnan may have been a manipulative turd, but I do not think he could have come up with this plan on his own, especially in view of the obvious help he received from Bilal. The original plan was time sensitive and required a high degree of precision, thus requiring a cell phone to execute. It was important for Adnan to be seen by others throughout the day so that the window during which he could have committed the murder would be impossibly small thereby insulating him from suspicion.
Phase 1: Give Jay Adnan’s phone and car so that Jay would be on call to immediately pick up Adnan after Hae was murdered.
Phase 2: Get a ride from Hae to the location of her murder and call Jay.
Phase 3: Drive Hae’s car to the Park n Ride while Jay follows in Adnan’s car.
Phase 4: Have Jay drive Adnan to track practice and make a big show to the coach to whom Adnan hardly spoke before to leave an impression so that the coach would remember Adnan was there.
Phase 5: Get high with Jay and go to Kristi’s where more people would see Adnan and could vouch that he was there.
Phase 6: Go home, shower and change for prayers at the ISB.
Phase 7: LEAD PRAYERS OF THE SMALL YOUTH GROUP SO THAT ISB MEMBERS COULD VOUCH THAT ADNAN WAS AT THE ISB THAT EVENING. Yeah, I know this didn’t happen, but this was Bilal’s ORIGINAL plan that got screwed up. Please read on to see how.
Phase 8: Live happily ever after knowing that he got away with murder (preceded by some plan in the days following Hae's murder to dispose of her body in something other than a shallow grave).
Of all the steps, I am most impressed by Phase 7: Not only is Adnan establishing his presence at the mosque for all to see, but by leading the prayers he is also spiritually cleansing himself of the heinous act that he just committed and asking God for forgiveness. What a twisted monster this Bilal is. He wields spiritual abuse like a magician. He uses religion to draw in his victims. He uses religion to reinforce his victims’ shame and silence. He uses religion to cleanse the unspeakable acts he manipulates his victims into performing. Unfortunately for Adnan, something went wrong at Phase 5 causing the shit to hit the prophy cup (the motorized dental tool that spins like crazy when used to polish teeth--yeah, I had to look that up).
The Audible
While sitting there at Kristi’s place establishing his presence, Adnan received a call. Recall that Adnan was high at the time and probably feeling a little paranoid. This paranoia likely went into overdrive when Adnan saw that the number calling him was Hae’s! Adnan’s head was spinning (like the now proverbial prophy cup) at the incredibly short turnaround time between Hae being murdered and her almost instantly haunting him. He trepidly answered and was relieved to hear the voice of Hae’s brother who actually meant to call her current boyfriend, Don, to ask of his sister’s whereabouts. Her brother’s mistake is easy to understand given that Hae wrote Adnan’s number in the last entry in her diary where she had also written Don’s name 127 times (see page 66 of the PDF). Adnan relaxed again for a moment before shit suddenly got real when his phone rang again a few minutes later with the police asking him about Hae’s whereabouts. Within a couple of hours of his killing Hae, the cops called Adnan on his cell phone that he had only activated 24 hours earlier. At this point, Adnan’s brain hit DEFCON fucked. He probably figured, if the cops could zero in on him and his phone that quickly, it’s just a question of time before they find Hae’s car and her body in the trunk and find a way to link it to him!
In a state of panic, paranoia and desperation, Adnan deviated from the plan and called an audible. He and Jay would retrieve Hae’s body from her car and bury it in Leakin Park. This was the point where the murder plot switched from being that of a criminal mastermind to the half-baked brain fart of two pot-heads. It transitioned from being Bilal's plan to Adnan's plan. In his panicked state, Adnan started to make mistakes. He popped the glove box in Hae’s car and frantically searched for the route to the park, but left a revealing palm print on the map book. After picking up Hae’s car and body, he realized that there was no way he would be able to make it to the ISB and lead prayers as required under Phase 7 of the plot. So Adnan called Yaser from his cell asking Yaser to relay to Bilal, who Adnan was NOT supposed to call, that Adnan would not be able to make it to the ISB that evening. The alternative explanation is absurd wherein while digging a grave for his ex-girlfriend whom he just murdered, Adnan suddenly became curious about whether he had cell reception in Leakin Park and decided to test the signal strength by calling his buddy. Remember, he was high on pot, not crystal meth. Had they been on meth, they would likely have dug a hole deep enough, but would have neglected to place the body inside. All kidding aside, I cannot underscore the importance of this call to Yaser enough. It strongly suggests that the pièce de résistance of the original plot was, in fact, Adnan leading the prayers on January 13, 1999 at the ISB. Prayers over which Bilal had control to designate who would lead and when. If true, this establishes Bilal as the mastermind behind the murder plot. The audible cost Adnan the possibility of legit alibi witnesses at the ISB for the evening of January 13, 1999.
Thus, Adnan screwed up his evening alibi, although, unsurprisingly, Bilal was supposedly prepared to commit perjury and say that Adnan was at the ISB anyway because that’s how Bilal rolls. While the alibi aspect of leading the prayers was lost, Bilal still saw value in Adnan leading the prayers on January 14 likely for the spiritual cleansing effect and to emotionally put the unpleasant matter behind him.
The Tip
A brief word about the February 12, 1999 phone tip wherein the tipster suggested that the cops take a closer look at Adnan for Hae's murder. We know that Adnan placed a call to Yasser at 6:59 PM on Jan 13. From there, it all likely unfolded as follows: As suggested above, this call was Adnan asking Yasser to cover for him at the mosque because Adnan was supposed to lead the youth group’s prayer per Bilal’s plan to give him an evening alibi. Yasser returned to Bilal's youth group of 20 boys, told them that Adnan would not be able to make it and Bilal designated one of the other boys to lead that evening. By itself, that's pretty unremarkable and the boys may not have thought much of it at the time. But then Hae’s disappearance started making the news. Based on Yasser’s testimony, many of the boys knew Adnan had been dating Hae. When the news of her body being found on Feb 9 broke, one of the boys in the youth group made the connection that Hae was last seen on the day that Yasser said he got the call and Adnan would not be leading them in the prayer. The kid only knows that Adnan called Yasser the evening of January 13, but does not know specifically what was discussed besides Adnan telling Yasser that he would not be able to make it to the mosque. The kid called the cops a couple of days later on Feb 12 telling them to look at Adnan who the kid knew was Hae's ex. More importantly, he called the cops back a few minutes later telling them to talk to Yasser. But the kid didn't tell the cops that Yasser received a call from Adnan the evening of January 13. The kid didn't tell the cops that Yasser was the one who told the youth group and Bilal that Adnan would not be leading them in prayers. The kid assumed that Yasser knew more about what else Adnan did that evening with regard to the murder because Yasser is the one who Adnan chose to call. The kid, wanting to preserve his anonymity and not wanting it known that he was one of the boys in Bilal's youth group, made Yasser's knowledge of what Adnan likely did to Hae about some remote bullshit story "from about a year ago" where Adnan allegedly told Yasser about hurting Hae and driving her car into a lake. One year earlier, Adnan and Hae were not dating. The kid's bullshit story was a feeble attempt to direct the cops to Yasser without having to tell them about the call Yasser received on January 13, 1999 that would have identified the tipster as one of the 20 boys in Bilal's youth group. Take it out of the context of this analysis. Is there a more logical reason why the tipster would call back and give the cops Yasser’s name?
What About Jay?
In the original plan, Jay was only supposed to drive Adnan's car: follow Adnan to where they dumped Hae's car with her body inside and accompany him to Kristi's. I imagine Bilal's instruction on this was something like this: "Get someone to drive your car and pick you up where you dump Hae and her car. Use that black guy you buy pot from. Threaten to turn him in if he doesn't agree to help." Jay went along initially because all he had to do was drive Adnan's car. Then when things went to hell and Adnan panicked at Phase 5 and called the audible, the plan suddenly went way beyond what Jay signed up for. Going back and getting Hae's body, helping drag her body out of the car to the burial site, helping bury (or watching Adnan bury) the body all freaked Jay out. Based on Jen's account of when she came to pick up Jay, he was shaken. He let it drop right then that Hae was murdered. Had they stuck to the original plan and spared Jay having to help drag Hae's dead body out and bury it, he probably would have kept his mouth shut and said nothing to Jen that night. Being a craven piece of shit, Bilal was not going to allow himself to have any active role in Hae's murder. Aside from being enlisted to drive Adnan's car, Jay may have also been engaged to assist so that Bilal and Adnan could have a patsy to blame for Hae's murder if the cops got too close. Recall that just before Hae's body was found, Adnan made an appointment to finally speak with the police after consulting with Bilal. The cops cancelled the meeting with Adnan after Hae's body was found so Adnan didn't have a chance to throw Jay under the bus.
Why didn't Adnan inform Bilal about the audible? As mentioned above, Adnan was under strict instructions to NOT call Bilal because Bilal didn't want to have any calls between himself and Adnan's new phone. Given that, it does seem strange and stupid for Bilal to have signed the cell phone contract two days earlier, but that also goes to the idea of Bilal being a CI who was pre-programmed into convincing himself that a cell phone is absolutely necessary for the operation. It's almost as though Bilal wasn't able to help himself like Yosemite Sam in this clip where he can’t stop his own actions despite knowing there will be a disastrous result.
We are not clear on what happened after Adnan dropped off Jay, but my guess is that Adnan went to the mosque to tell Bilal in person what had happened. The taraweeh prayers during Ramadan typically last 1.5 to 2 hours. If they started at around 7 PM they would have been wrapping up at close to 9 PM and people would still be hanging out. Jen was paged at a little after 8 PM to pick up Jay and Adnan likely headed home at about 8:15 PM. I assume he would have gone home to clean up before heading over to the mosque, which would have put him there at around 9ish when most people were leaving or had already left, thus the lack of people willing to testify that he was there that evening. Wait, I take that back...Jan 13, 1999 landed on an odd night (25th of Ramadan) during the last 10 days of the holy month. Odd nights during the last ten days are of particular significance for reasons you can look up on your own, but Muslims tend to spend extra time in prayers and dhikr (remembrance/thinking about God) on these nights. ISB members would have definitely stuck around after 9 pm. I imagine that deviating from the plan and physically burying Hae freaked Adnan out as well and he probably was too weirded out to go into the mosque and may have waited outside in his car for Bilal to come out. While waiting, he may have made those calls to Nisha at Krista at around 9 PM. Then again, he may have just gone home and made the calls from there and connected with Bilal in person the following day. What we do know is that Adnan did not go to the mosque on January 13, 1999 despite his dad—and ONLY his dad in a community of hundreds—having testified otherwise.
The Arrest
In the weeks following Hae’s murder, Adnan and Bilal did their best to keep a low profile occasionally shitting themselves every time the cops reached out. When Adnan was arrested, Bilal knew that he had to make himself indispensable to Adnan and his family. There is desperation in the way Bilal completely threw himself into assisting Adnan. As mentioned before, Bilal was Adnan’s first call from prison. Bilal quickly retained attorneys to represent Adnan and organized the community to pay for the legal fees and write letters of support too in hope for a favorable bail hearing. Even the attorneys Bilal hired were under the impression that Bilal was a close relative of Adnan’s. As devastated as Adnan’s parents were, they felt blessed to have Bilal in their corner. How can this amazing man who selflessly took such an active interest in their son for the past several years be any more of an angel???!!! “Bilal, we are so lucky to have you in our lives!” There are nearly 100 calls between Bilal and Adnan’s parents during the 45-day stretch between when Adnan was arrested and when he was indicted. Not only was Adnan groomed to be dependent upon and completely devoted to Bilal, Bilal groomed Adnan’s parents to feel that way as well.
It had to be Gutierrez
While Bilal deserves to be universally hated, Rabia somehow manages to even get her reasons for hating Bilal wrong. In her mind, Bilal’s most egregious offense was hiring Cristina Gutierrez to represent Adnan. Rabia convinced herself that Gutierrez was a shitty attorney who sabotaged Adnan’s defense. In reality, Rabia is oblivious to the fact that she herself is a far shittier attorney who did immeasurable damage to Adnan’s case by providing inept assistance guaranteeing that Adnan will rot in prison for the rest of his life. All Rabia accomplished was finding a new way to leverage social media to weaponize uninformed public opinion and unleash it against our imperfect criminal justice system making it worse than it was before. As I posted previously, Gutierrez was more than competent and did well with the shitty hand that she was dealt. What I did not realize until recently is that Bilal was likely the dealer and made sure she received an extra helping of shit.
There is no shortage of competent defense attorneys in the Baltimore area. Yet, Bilal insisted that Adnan use Gutierrez, the same attorney who represented Bilal (and Rabia’s brother, Saad) during the grand jury proceedings. The lengths to which the defense went to shoehorn Gutierrez into this case were extraordinary. While I stand by the fact that she was a good attorney, her courtroom presence, admittedly, left something to be desired and moving heaven and earth to convince the court to allow her to represent Adnan was initially a head scratcher. Looking at it now, I’m sorry, but this Bilal fucker is an evil genius. Having Gutierrez represent Adnan was the ultimate hedge move wherein she would be bound by attorney-client privilege to not disclose ANYTHING Bilal told her short of his intending to commit a future crime. After his less than stellar performance as a witness during the grand jury proceedings, Bilal had Adnan change his legal representation. Recall that Bilal’s testimony resulted in the prosecution subpoenaing Bilal’s cell phone records and wondering if he was involved in Hae’s murder. Also recall Bilal’s strange, paranoid behavior during his testimony where he would excuse himself after even the most innocuous question and consult with Gutierrez who was sitting outside the courtroom. Within a couple of weeks of Bilal's grand jury testimony, Gutierrez was suddenly retained to take over Adnan's defense.
To be clear, I don’t think Bilal said anything to Gutierrez to lead her to suspect that he was in any way involved in Hae's murder. Sure, he bought Adnan the phone, but that’s all she knew. She could not have known that Adnan was lurking near Bilal’s office at the dental school the night before or that Bilal originally intended for Adnan to lead prayers on Jan 13. She did not know about Bilal’s predatory behavior. She did, however, suspect that there was something fishy going on during the grand jury proceedings when she told the attorney who was representing Adnan at the time to warn Shamim (Adnan’s mom) about seeing Bilal during the days he was testifying. She also likely knew that Bilal was involved in the plot to fabricate the Asia alibi, but thought she had control over the situation. She did not have any concrete proof or admission from Bilal or Adnan with which to go to the judge to raise a conflict of interest and request to be removed as counsel. Bilal’s main motivation in having her represent Adnan was that because of her earlier representation of Bilal, she would be precluded from investigating and raising an affirmative defense that Bilal was an accomplice who coerced/manipulated Adnan into committing the murder. At the time she agreed to represent Adnan, this was hardly conceivable. By the time she learned of Bilal’s predatory behavior, it was the 11th hour before the trial and very unlikely that the judge would allow her to withdraw. I don’t think she acted unethically although she should have thought twice about agreeing to take Adnan as a client. But she was duped into representing Adnan by Bilal, a master manipulator: “We need the best representation Ms. Gutierrez and that is you! Adnan’s only chance is if an excellent attorney like you represents him! The entire ISB community is prepared to pitch in and pay your legal fees!” All this fucker did was groom people.
Had Adnan been represented by an independent attorney who was in no way connected to Bilal, that attorney may have had the option to argue an affirmative defense under the theory that Adnan’s actions were the result of his being controlled and manipulated by the predator, Bilal. In fact, Judge Mitchell raised these concerns during the July 9, 1999 motion hearing to determine whether Gutierrez should represent Adnan at pages 12-13. Technically, Gutierrez could notify the court if she encountered a conflict of interest, but there was nothing concrete to which she could point. While she was probably sharp enough to connect the dots for how Hae's murder likely went down, she was ethically precluded from connecting them through Bilal because he too was her client. Thus, Bilal made sure that there would be no opportunity to direct the prosecution to look harder at him for treating Adnan like a pawn in the hands of a grand master. By having Gutierrez represent both Adnan and Bilal, Bilal effectively tied her hands and insulated himself from suspicion.
Why
There is no good answer for "Why?" when it comes to a craven, insane predator like Bilal. You might as well ask why he felt compelled to prey on young boys or sexually assaulted his patients and employees. Having spent way too much time trying to understand how his toxic mind works, I have a few guesses.
There are clues in Hae’s diary. It should be noted that Hae was likely guarded in what she wrote and avoided disclosing any explicit, substantive information because, as stated in an early entry dated April 5, 1998, she knew her brother reads the diary. In her May 7, 1998 entry she wrote of Adnan telling her of a sexual issue about himself that he needed to discuss. The July 1, 1998 entry suggests Adnan’s inability to perform sexually. Look at the entry. According to Hae, Adnan told her, "You said that I can't fulfill you physically, well, you can't fulfill me emotionally." Hae went on to write that her friend told her re Adnan, "Even if you don't have a great sex life, at least you have a strong emotional relationship." Kinda cuts against Team Adnan's narrative that he was some huge player who was having sex with Hae all over the place. It felt like Rabia, Saad and Adnan oversold it when they talked about the hotel rooms and parked cars where Adnan and Hae would screw. Like the un-layable kid who brags about his girlfriend who lives in Canada that nobody met. Based on Hae's diary, I'd be surprised if Adnan and Hae had sex at all. It puts an entirely different spin on for whom Bilal was renting hotel rooms. This gives more weight to the likelihood that the "player" narrative was a smokescreen to mask the reality of who was screwing who. The shitty HBO documentary makes it a point to discuss Hae telling Adnan that she was sexually assaulted by a family member although she makes no reference to this in her diary. While Adnan is hardly a credible source for Hae having been molested, the attention-starved Debbie backs up this story. In the context of Hae’s diary entries, it’s possible that they shared their respective victimhood with one another, which may explain the strong emotional bond Hae appeared to have with Adnan.
It is possible that Adnan disclosed his relationship with Bilal to Hae and, after Hae dumped him, admitted to Bilal that he made such a disclosure. This would cause Bilal great consternation and fear of criminal consequences because Hae is outside the scope of Bilal’s control. While most of us have boundaries that govern our behavior, Bilal is basically borderless. His developing the plot to murder Hae may have been driven by his warped sense of self-preservation. Bilal had no control over Hae and her knowing about Bilal preying on her ex since he was a child was a direct threat that Bilal needed to eliminate. Alternatively, he may have concocted the plot out of jealousy because he hated that Adnan was pining for Hae and felt compelled to manipulate Adnan into murdering her. Or, as astutely noted by another user, he may have been tempted by the prospect of giving himself life-long leverage by holding his knowledge of the crime over Adnan in perpetuity if they got away with it. It is likely that a manipulative monster like Bilal convinced Adnan that Hae is now a loose cannon who knows something that would destroy Adnan's reputation. Despite Adnan being Bilal's victim, Bilal would leverage the shame Adnan felt over the "relationship" they shared. Adnan did not understand that Bilal was not only physically preying on him but also preying on Adnan's fear that Adnan would be a pariah if the community found out about his relationship with Bilal. Because in the eyes of the community, they would not see Adnan as the victim he was, but rather a willing participant in a sordid affair. Bilal likely told Adnan that his parents would die of shame. Admitting to murdering Hae masks a deeper admission wherein lies what was likely Adnan's true motive for committing the crime. Then again, only Adnan knows.
Imprisonment
Both Adnan and Bilal are currently in prison. Bilal is two years into his 16.5 year sentence for sexually assaulting patients and employees at his dental practice. On January 17, 2020, Bilal is scheduled to be sentenced for defrauding Medicare/Medicaid. His attorneys will make a case that his sentence for stealing nearly $6 million should run concurrently with his sentence for forcing several people into performing oral sex on him while they lay unconscious in a dental chair. Bilal may, at most, spend the next 14 years in jail.
Adnan has remained in prison since his arrest almost 21 years ago. The likelihood of his being released was killed not long ago when he exhausted his appeals and the Supreme Court denied cert. The arguments made were stupid. There was enough against him where the case would not have turned without the cell tower location evidence. The absurd notion that Guteirrez was ineffective is patently offensive to logic and her memory. The fabricated Asia alibi only confirmed Adnan’s guilt. Rabia and the rest of the passengers in her clown car masquerading as attorneys have litigated Adnan into a corner where he can no longer tell the truth. He can no longer admit that he was merely a marionette in the hands of a puppet master.
Adnan’s imprisonment did not begin in 1999. It started when he was 11 years old and was placed in the hands of this monster. The monster groomed Adnan into being utterly devoted to him. It is unfortunate that in a community like the ISB, members would likely have a difficult time distinguishing between homosexuality and a child being preyed upon by a predator. It is that lack of distinction that scares the child into shame and silence. Adnan has been locked in that emotional prison for the past 27 years. The predator who made Adnan into what he is and made him kill Hae Min Lee will likely reenter society around the time that Adnan celebrates his 51st birthday in jail.
Hae Min Lee’s death was unspeakably tragic. The tragedy for her family was compounded over the past five years by the pervasive reminder of Hae’s death through the wildly popular podcast, countless news articles, books, blogs, and, of course, the shitty documentary that advocated for Adnan’s innocence while pretending to mourn Hae’s murder. Their misery was fodder for our entertainment in which they will continue to be imprisoned for as long as we continue to be fascinated by this case.
I’ve been all over the map with Adnan, starting as a staunch supporter who was duped by Rabia to a mild hater upon realizing his guilt to an extreme hater for his team’s unfair treatment of Gutierrez to where I am now. It is easy to revel in schadenfreude, celebrating the misfortune of one we choose to regard as a smug, manipulative piece of shit. But I don’t know if that’s what Adnan is. I hope I’m wrong about this entire analysis, but it doesn’t feel like I am. I don’t think Adnan is capable of admitting guilt because acknowledging his part in Hae’s murder would likely open deep-seated scars Adnan has been carrying since he was 11 years old. I can’t help but to think that it’s easier for Adnan to remain in prison than to admit that he was molested. If the content of this post is accurate, this story is extremely tragic because there are only victims and the primary perp has escaped accountability--for this crime anyway. As to Adnan, it saddens me that he is imprisoned by the perception of his community. He is imprisoned by the crippling shame. He is imprisoned by the belief of his supporters that he is innocent. And somehow Asia inexplicably knows the address to every one of those prisons. Dammit, I know that killed the vibe I had going there, but I can’t stop myself from taking a cheap shot at Asia.
Then, of course, there is us and the self-imposed prisons in which we lock ourselves, addicted to unresolved cases. Addicted to this case that has no real impact on our day-to-day lives. It is the wee hours of the morning on a weekday and I’m sitting here, again, writing about this goddamn case. I hate thinking about how much time I devoted to reviewing evidence and analyzing facts. It takes me to a dark place of self loathing to think about all the things I could have been learning or doing instead of diving down this rabbit hole.
The title of this post borrows from a far more compelling and impactful documentary that recently aired on HBO, Leaving Neverland. The emotional imprisonment suffered by the two men featured in that documentary was more real and relevant to the Serial case than the asinine sophistry peddled in the deceptively named, The Case Against Adnan Syed.
Thanks to all of you with whom I have engaged over the past year, particularly those who challenged my ideas. I sincerely appreciate your sticking around to reach this point in my ridiculously long post. I hope we can all find a way to finally leave Baltimore and get on with our lives.
submitted by SalmaanQ to serialpodcast [link] [comments]


2020.01.03 16:37 sconce2600 The List: 2020

Edit 4/9/20: The lineup potentially leaked on the official website, bold names denote the names leaked (this may change upon an official release).
This is a list of acts that are potentially playing OSLs 2020. I intend to update this list via edit from now until the lineup drop. If you want to add someone to this list just comment below and I will modify the list and credit your handle next to the edit. If you want to find someone in particular quickly I suggest you use ctrl F.
POTENTIAL HEADLINERS
POTENTIAL UNDERCARD:
Playing five tracked festivals
Playing four tracked festivals
Playing three tracked festivals
Playing two tracked festivals
Playing one tracked festival
Added by users, not currently playing any heavy crossover festivals so far
The following have appeared at OSLs once before but have not released new material since their first stint and are therefore less likely to appear in 2019 (To date only Beck and Vance Joy have returned WITHOUT new material, making the following acts much less likely)
The following is a list of bands that have played OSLs more than once and the gaps between return performances, considering only five acts have ever played OSLs three times, all acts in this section should be considered less likely than acts that have played OSLs once or never. Note that no act has ever returned quicker than a three year gap, Givers, Fantastic Negrito, and Big Boi were all makeup performances for prior year cancellations.
Headliners
Threepeaters
Three year gap
Four year gap
Five year gap
Six year gap
Seven year gap
Eight year gap
Ten year gap
The following are past lineup drop dates, all lineup drops from 2012 to 2019 have occurred on a Tuesday:
ACTS CONFIRMED PRIOR TO LINEUP DROP:
Clement Marfo: cracked via bigpavelski35 from a Twitter clue video posted by OSLs Twitter.
Orville Peck
Zhu
Tyler, The Creator
Brittany Howard
The Hu
The 1975
Below are names on the potential lineup leak that occurred on 4/9/20 on the official Outsidelands website that were not included on either list:
submitted by sconce2600 to OutsideLands [link] [comments]


2019.12.31 19:42 subreddit_stats Subreddit Stats: indieheads top posts from 2018-12-29 to 2019-12-28 19:31 PDT

Period: 364.15 days
Submissions Comments
Total 1000 105312
Rate (per day) 2.75 287.30
Unique Redditors 532 26341
Combined Score 762291 1924958

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 28434 points, 48 submissions: sbags
    1. [FRESH ALBUM] King Gizzard & The Lizard Wizard - Infest the Rats' Nest (1863 points, 232 comments)
    2. St. Vincent Wins 'Best Rock Song' Grammy for "Masseduction" (1499 points, 147 comments)
    3. Built To Spill's 'Keep It Like A Secret' Turns 20 (1436 points, 181 comments)
    4. Portishead’s ‘Dummy’ Is 25. The Band Asks That You Play It Loud. (1313 points, 86 comments)
    5. [FRESH ALBUM] Angel Olsen - All Mirrors (1252 points, 233 comments)
    6. IDLES 'Tiny Desk Concert' coming soon (1248 points, 46 comments)
    7. Lollapalooza's 2019 Lineup (1125 points, 522 comments)
    8. Wilco Announce New Album 'Ode to Joy' (out October 4th) (1030 points, 110 comments)
    9. [FRESH ALBUM] Foals - Everything Not Saved Will Be Lost – Part 1 (960 points, 164 comments)
    10. [FRESH PERFORMANCE] Japanese Breakfast - Run Away With Me (Carly Rae Jepsen Cover - Live in Philadelphia - New Years Eve) (909 points, 45 comments)
  2. 26258 points, 28 submissions: ReconEG
    1. Daniel Johnston has passed away. (3816 points, 299 comments)
    2. Mac DeMarco Confirms New Album in 2019, Announces North American Tour (2197 points, 150 comments)
    3. How Reddit's indieheads Is Keeping the Spirit of Music Blogs Alive -- And Pushing the Boundaries of 'Indie' (2114 points, 326 comments)
    4. Bandcamp will now offer an in-house vinyl crowdfunding and pressing service, set to fully launch before year’s end (1773 points, 76 comments)
    5. The Avalanches LP3 is currently being mixed (1704 points, 94 comments)
    6. The Avalanches tease collab with JPEGMAFIA (1685 points, 63 comments)
    7. The Needle Drop announces charity compilation 12” featuring new/unreleased music from HMLTD, Mark Kozelek, Open Mike Eagle, and more (1347 points, 109 comments)
    8. Pitchfork’s editorial staff have formed a union with NewsGuild of New York (1021 points, 205 comments)
    9. El-P’s solo albums are coming to streaming for the first time; reissues also announced for 2020 via Fat Possum (962 points, 58 comments)
    10. Japanese Breakfast's Michelle Zauner Announces Memoir 'Crying In H Mart' (935 points, 61 comments)
  3. 11418 points, 13 submissions: ISmellSkunks
    1. [FRESH ALBUM] Vampire Weekend - Father of the Bride (3220 points, 856 comments)
    2. [FRESH ALBUM] King Gizzard & The Lizard Wizard - Fishing For Fishies (1310 points, 214 comments)
    3. Arcade Fire to release new single later this year (1205 points, 298 comments)
    4. [FRESH PERFORMANCE] Mac DeMarco - All of Our Yesterdays (1047 points, 81 comments)
    5. [FRESH ALBUM] Weyes Blood - Titanic Rising (1016 points, 263 comments)
    6. [FRESH ALBUM] Cage The Elephant - Social Cues (844 points, 92 comments)
    7. [FRESH ALBUM] PUP - Morbid Stuff (694 points, 125 comments)
    8. [FRESH ALBUM] Big Thief - U.F.O.F. (605 points, 152 comments)
    9. [FRESH ALBUM] Sun Kil Moon - I Also Want to Die in New Orleans (351 points, 123 comments)
    10. [FRESH ALBUM] Stella Donnelly - Beware of the Dogs (342 points, 53 comments)
  4. 9804 points, 13 submissions: mateoka
    1. [FRESH] Vampire Weekend - Harmony Hall / 2021 (3153 points, 553 comments)
    2. Bombay Bicycle Club begin recording fifth album (from instagram story) (1332 points, 67 comments)
    3. Phoenix’s “Lisztomania” Sees Huge Streaming Increase After Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Video (1135 points, 146 comments)
    4. [FRESH PERFORMANCE] Vampire Weekend - This Life (1009 points, 127 comments)
    5. [FRESH ALBUM] American Football - American Football (LP3) (841 points, 120 comments)
    6. [FRESH ALBUM] Foals - Everything Not Saved Will Be Lost – Part 2 (411 points, 65 comments)
    7. Phoenix are currently mixing their upcoming album at Motorbass Studio in Paris (356 points, 19 comments)
    8. [FRESH ALBUM] The Japanese House - Good At Falling (296 points, 45 comments)
    9. [FRESH ALBUM] The Raconteurs - Help Us Stranger (272 points, 70 comments)
    10. [FRESH ALBUM] Rex Orange County - Pony (252 points, 43 comments)
  5. 9495 points, 15 submissions: hitsman
    1. [FRESH CHART] New Alternative 40 - November 10, 2019 - TAME IMPALA holds for a 2nd week at #1. BECK has the highest entry, while BEST COAST, FKA TWIGS, LUCY DACUS, FRANK OCEAN, and HAZEL ENGLISH also debut in the top 10. (1021 points, 119 comments)
    2. [FRESH CHART] New Alternative 40 - August 25, 2019 - THE 1975 enter at #1 with "People", while tracks from MURA MASA & CLAIRO, LANA DEL REY, DIIV, STURGILL SIMPSON, and DECLAN MCKENNA also debut in the top 10. (1013 points, 110 comments)
    3. [FRESH CHART] New Alternative 40 - June 23, 2019 - Metronomy debuts at #1 with "Salted Caramel Ice Cream". Spoon, Frankie Cosmos, The Regrettes, Devendra Barnhart also debut in the top 10. (871 points, 80 comments)
    4. [FRESH CHART] New Alternative 40 - November 17, 2019 - MODEST MOUSE enters at #1 with "Ice Cream Party", while BILLIE EILISH, GRIMES, BECK, WOLF PARADE, OF MONTREAL, and MOSES SUMNEY also debut in the top 10. (836 points, 106 comments)
    5. [FRESH CHART] New Alternative 40 - November 3, 2019 - TAME IMPALA debuts at #1 followed closely by HAIM. PINEGROVE and TORRES also debut in the top 10. (794 points, 73 comments)
    6. [FRESH CHART] New Alternative 40 - September 1, 2019 - CIGARETTES AFTER SEX debut at #1 with "Heavenly" and BOMBAY BICYCLE CLUB, BEABADOOBEE, and VAGABON also bow in the top 10. (779 points, 81 comments)
    7. [FRESH CHART] New Alternative 40 - August 18, 2019 - BIG THIEF debuts at #1 with "Not" followed by DEATH CAB FOR CUTIE and WHITNEY. (SANDY) ALEX G and JENNY HVAL also debut in the top 10. (751 points, 79 comments)
    8. [FRESH CHART] New Alternative 40 - September 29, 2019 - SOCCER MOMMY advances to #1, while FOALS has the highest debut. THE JAPANESE HOUSE, WHITE LIES, and BROKEN BELLS also debut in the top 10. (747 points, 50 comments)
    9. [FRESH CHART] New Alternative 40 - October 27, 2019 - BECK advances 3 spots to #1 with "Uneventful Days", while THE 1975, DESTROYER, MUMFORD & SONS, FRANK OCEAN, FRANCES QUINLAN, COLDPLAY, and LITTLE DRAGON debut in the top 10. (535 points, 86 comments)
    10. [FRESH CHART] New Alternative 40 - June 15, 2019 - Liam Gallagher advances to #1 with "Shockwave" while Bat for Lashes has the highest debut at #2. Sleater-Kinney, The Raconteurs, and Flume also debut in the top 10. (529 points, 51 comments)
  6. 9400 points, 10 submissions: Ghdust2
    1. Thom Yorke says he’s a fan of Billie Eilish: “Nobody’s telling her what to do”. (2641 points, 485 comments)
    2. Vampire Weekend Are The First Act With Three #1 Albums & No Hot 100 Hits. (1697 points, 127 comments)
    3. [FRESH PERFORMANCE] Death Cab for Cutie - I Will Follow You Into the Dark - Live at Lollapalooza 2019 (1171 points, 87 comments)
    4. [FRESH PERFORMANCE] IDLES - Danny Nedelko (Glastonbury 2019) (1035 points, 80 comments)
    5. Josh Homme on Them Crooked Vultures: "We all want to do another record. These things happen when they're supposed to." (909 points, 67 comments)
    6. Bon Iver and Ezra Koenig Go Deep in 2-Hour "Time Crisis" Chat (561 points, 36 comments)
    7. [FRESH PERFORMANCE] Kurt Vile & The Violators - Loading Zones (Glastonbury 2019) (417 points, 24 comments)
    8. Alexandria Savior announces new music. (368 points, 22 comments)
    9. [FRESH PERFORMANCE] Interpol - All The Rage Back Home (Glastonbury 2019) (354 points, 32 comments)
    10. Queens of the Stone Age frontman Josh Homme to release the first new ‘Desert Sessions’ collection in over 16 years (247 points, 17 comments)
  7. 8998 points, 9 submissions: Moothnods
    1. Mac DeMarco: ‘I would love to make my own fucked up version of a Michael Bublé album’ (2625 points, 162 comments)
    2. Jimmy Eat World Drummer Calls Third Eye Blind Singer A “Fucking Creepy Douchebag” After Co-Headlining Tour (1529 points, 330 comments)
    3. The National: At one point the band 'broke up but nobody noticed' (1296 points, 110 comments)
    4. The Ryan Adams Allegations are the Tip of an Indie Music Iceberg (892 points, 593 comments)
    5. St Vincent: ‘My guiltiest pleasure? Ultimate Fighting Championship’ (861 points, 96 comments)
    6. Angel Olsen’s Songs Made People Cry. Now She Wants Them to Swoon. (805 points, 47 comments)
    7. The National: ‘We don’t want to turn into leathery road dogs, coughing up phlegm’ (434 points, 24 comments)
    8. Stella Donnelly: 'I’m more than happy to cause friction among the right wing' (311 points, 145 comments)
    9. Help Janet Weiss Get Back On Her Feet - 'Go Fund Me' organized by sister Julie Weiss (245 points, 45 comments)
  8. 7036 points, 6 submissions: pinklitmus
    1. [SPECULATION] New Mac DeMarco album, ‘Here Comes The Cowboy’, being released May 10. (2592 points, 161 comments)
    2. [FRESH ALBUM] Mac DeMarco - Here Comes the Cowboy (1578 points, 386 comments)
    3. [SPECULATION] King Gizzard & The Lizard Wizard's new album, 'Fishing for Fishies', set to be released on April 26. (1071 points, 66 comments)
    4. [FRESH PERFORMANCE] Tame Impala - "Patience" (Live on SNL) (951 points, 82 comments)
    5. [FRESH VIDEO] Mac DeMarco - Nobody (458 points, 84 comments)
    6. [FRESH PERFORMANCE] Tame Impala - "Borderline" (Live on SNL) (386 points, 123 comments)
  9. 6734 points, 10 submissions: VietRooster
    1. Spotify Wrapped 2019 (1677 points, 937 comments)
    2. Danny Brown announces new album "uknowhatimsayin¿", out October 4th on WARP Records (1561 points, 131 comments)
    3. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] King Gizzard & the Lizard Wizard - Infest the Rats' Nest (672 points, 169 comments)
    4. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] Lana Del Rey - Norman Fucking Rockwell! (590 points, 247 comments)
    5. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] Weyes Blood - Titanic Rising (461 points, 144 comments)
    6. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] Jay Som - Anak Ko (421 points, 85 comments)
    7. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] clipping. - There Existed an Addiction to Blood (373 points, 129 comments)
    8. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] (Sandy) Alex G - House of Sugar (367 points, 121 comments)
    9. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] PUP - Morbid Stuff (349 points, 95 comments)
    10. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] Mount Eerie & Julie Doiron - [Lost Wisdom, Pt. 2] (263 points, 32 comments)
  10. 6616 points, 1 submission: beats226
    1. Jack White’s Response to Spin Magazine article (6616 points, 489 comments)
  11. 6400 points, 8 submissions: Diegzzz
    1. TheNeedleDrop’s top 50 albums of 2019 (1260 points, 455 comments)
    2. New King Gizzard album: Fishing for Fishies out 4/26. Pre-Order 3/13 at 9 am aedt (1243 points, 43 comments)
    3. new lightning bolt album coming this fall! (954 points, 38 comments)
    4. [FRESH] King Gizzard and the Lizard Wizard - Self Immolate (882 points, 117 comments)
    5. [FRESH STREAM] King Gizzard and the Lizard Wizard - Planet B (649 points, 59 comments)
    6. black midi release the stems of their debut Schlagenhiem for fans to remix (626 points, 37 comments)
    7. Tropical Fuck Storm officially signs to Flightless records, new single/video tomorrow! (536 points, 23 comments)
    8. New Girl Band album: “The Talkies” out 9/27 (250 points, 26 comments)
  12. 6179 points, 4 submissions: zac504
    1. Pitchfork: 200 best albums of the 2010s (4345 points, 2814 comments)
    2. [FRESH] Bon Iver - Hey, Ma** (1147 points, 169 comments)
    3. [FRESH] Bon Iver - U (Man Like) (419 points, 55 comments)
    4. FKA Twigs MAGDALENE, releasing 25th of October, available to pre-add on Apple music (268 points, 36 comments)
  13. 5578 points, 9 submissions: Srtviper
    1. Weezer (1230 points, 3 comments)
    2. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] Tyler, the Creator - Igor (1212 points, 269 comments)
    3. [2010-14] INDIHEADS OFFICIAL 2010-2014 CHART (722 points, 199 comments)
    4. [FRESH] Mount Eerie - (fireworks & wind) (549 points, 59 comments)
    5. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] The National - I Am Easy to Find (425 points, 163 comments)
    6. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] Big Thief - U.F.O.F. (373 points, 143 comments)
    7. [FRESH VIDEO] Danny Brown - Dirty Laundry (365 points, 32 comments)
    8. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] Carly Rae Jepsen - Dedicated (357 points, 151 comments)
    9. [ALBUM DISCUSSION] Vampire Weekend - Father of the Bride (345 points, 283 comments)
  14. 5370 points, 2 submissions: frogaranaman
    1. [FRESH] Tame Impala – Patience (3651 points, 541 comments)
    2. Tame Impala announces North America 2020 tour (1719 points, 305 comments)
  15. 5320 points, 7 submissions: jbrav88
    1. Surf guitar legend Dick Dale dead at 82 (1894 points, 70 comments)
    2. Big Black bassist Dave Riley has died of throat cancer at 59 (983 points, 25 comments)
    3. Janet Weiss announces departure from Sleater-Kinney (880 points, 383 comments)
    4. Sleater-Kinney's "The Hot Rock" Turns 20 (536 points, 42 comments)
    5. Annie Clark and Carrie Brownstein to create mockumentary tour film (430 points, 37 comments)
    6. Janet Weiss Opens Up About Sleater-Kinney Exit: “The Rules Changed Within The Band” (323 points, 158 comments)
    7. [FRESH] Sleater-Kinney - Hurry On Home (274 points, 56 comments)
  16. 5179 points, 10 submissions: afieldoftulips
    1. Pitchfork Union releases statement after entire video team laid off (1411 points, 367 comments)
    2. indieheads Roast of: 2019 in Indie Music (531 points, 591 comments)
    3. Pitchfork writers union officially recognised by Conde Nast (476 points, 56 comments)
    4. indieheads Roast of: indieheads (471 points, 511 comments)
    5. CupcakKe is reportedly safe after posting suicidal tweet (467 points, 144 comments)
    6. indieheads Roast of: Coachella 2019 (464 points, 242 comments)
    7. indieheads Roast of: The 1975 (439 points, 288 comments)
    8. indieheads Roast of: Morrissey (346 points, 144 comments)
    9. indieheads Roast of: Sun Kil Moon (330 points, 188 comments)
    10. indieheads Roast of: Jack White (244 points, 156 comments)
  17. 4806 points, 7 submissions: niels36
    1. [FRESH ALBUM] FKA TWIGS - MAGDALENE (1444 points, 286 comments)
    2. [FRESH ALBUM] Big Thief - Two Hands (1132 points, 266 comments)
    3. [FRESH] The Chats - Identity Theft (919 points, 118 comments)
    4. [FRESH] Foals - Black Bull (367 points, 68 comments)
    5. [FRESH] Julien Baker - The Modern Leper (from Tiny Changes) (Frightened Rabbit Cover) (326 points, 39 comments)
    6. [FRESH ALBUM] KAYTRANADA - BUBBA (323 points, 41 comments)
    7. [FRESH ALBUM] Caroline Polachek - PANG (295 points, 39 comments)
  18. 4777 points, 4 submissions: FyuuR
    1. How a Teenager Turned a Denny's Into the Best Punk Club Ever, For One Night Only (2317 points, 129 comments)
    2. Tame Impala Announce 2020 Tour Dates With Clairo (1678 points, 153 comments)
    3. Vampire Weekend celebrate new LP with NY State Tour (NYC w/ bagels & pizza!) (416 points, 78 comments)
    4. Broken Social Scene to perform "You Forgot it in People" in full at SXSW (366 points, 31 comments)
  19. 4687 points, 7 submissions: sincerityisscxry
    1. Bombay Bicycle Club are releasing their first single in 5 years, 'Eat, Sleep, Wake (Nothing But You)' tomorrow (1238 points, 48 comments)
    2. New Bombay Bicycle Club song releasing on Wednesday (834 points, 29 comments)
    3. Fontaines DC to release second album "inspired by The Beach Boys" in 2020 (807 points, 79 comments)
    4. [FRESH VIDEO] The 1975 - People (719 points, 249 comments)
    5. Little Simz says her next album might take new direction after being inspired by IDLES (536 points, 38 comments)
    6. [FRESH] The 1975 - The 1975 (298 points, 127 comments)
    7. Fontaines D.C have finished recording their Beach Boys-inspired second album (255 points, 44 comments)
  20. 4498 points, 7 submissions: willdennison1
    1. [FRESH] The National - Light Years (994 points, 131 comments)
    2. [FRESH] Angel Olsen - All Mirrors (823 points, 76 comments)
    3. New Big Thief album 'U.F.O.F', released May 3rd on 4AD (809 points, 82 comments)
    4. [FRESH] Big Thief - Forgotten Eyes (700 points, 98 comments)
    5. [FRESH] Big Thief - Not (Album version) (441 points, 80 comments)
    6. [FRESH] Deerhunter - Plains (393 points, 55 comments)
    7. [FRESH] Big Thief - UFOF (Official Audio) (338 points, 62 comments)

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  1. Jack White’s Response to Spin Magazine article by beats226 (6616 points, 489 comments)
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2019.11.26 03:27 OneFaraday I am the framer of cursed images. (part 10)

Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10 Part 11 Part 12 Part 13 Part 14 Part 15 Part 16 N
Finally, it was Friday.
It had been a really long week. I’d saved a pug on monday, saved Jason from being stabbed to death on tuesday, got Ivan’s order on wednesday and stopped his suicide on thursday. I felt like I was working two full-time jobs and leading a double life.
Orders had started to creep up on me, too. When I did the morning paperwork I discovered that I had four orders due today and seven more due monday, which meant that I needed to get to work. It felt good knowing that there were no cursed images in the shop, only regular ordinary orders. I’ll take mats and fillets over blood and murder any day.
I was beginning to have a bit of pavlovian response now when I heard the bell on the framing counter ring. I could feel my muscles tense and hairs on my neck stand on end, worried that the next order would present another vision that I would have the responsibility to prevent from coming true. Kali’s face had been two and half weeks ago now, but it still haunted me daily.
When I got to the counter, I was pleasantly surprised to see Theresa McDonald again. I’d forgotten that she said she’d be coming back.
“Welcome back,” I said, smiling. “Glad to see you again.”
“Good to see you too. How’s the framing business treating you?”
I shrugged. “It’s heavy work. You know how it is.”
“I sure do. Nothing like setting a big, heavy sheet of thin breakable glass on to of priceless original artwork, right? Gotta keep those nerves razor-sharp.”
I laughed. “Yep, you know how it is. Why can’t everyone just get acrylic instead?”
“That would be nice. Well, you don’t need to worry about this one. It’s a painting on canvas. No glazing necessary.” She pulled the rolled artwork out of her bag and laid it down on the counter.
The artwork was stunning, and deeply disconcerting. I was expecting this; she was a collector of unusual and morbid art. What I was not expecting was that the artwork would depict her.
It showed her from the chest up, nude, dead, and floating underwater. I knew that a real drowned body would look bloated and grotesque, not like this romanticized figure with it’s pale alabaster skin and perfect features. She was surrounded by strings of seaweed and small curious fish. The artist hadn’t hid her age, but rendered her with honest beauty. It was beautifully painted in a very smooth, realistic way. I thought for a moment it might be a print of a digital artwork, but when I looked closer I realized that the artist just used perfect brushstrokes.
“That’s stunning,” I said in awe. “Where did you get it?”
“It’s by a Japanese artist I’m a fan of. He works for Studio Ghibli, and paints in acrylic as a hobby.”
“Did you commission it, or did he approach you?”
She seemed confused by this question. “Commission? No. I just found it on his website. What do you mean?”
“Well, it’s-” I caught myself, suddenly realizing what was happening.
“It’s what?” She asked, suddenly alarmed.
“Nothing,” I muttered, fiddling with the canvas, turning it to get a better picture with the computer’s camera.
She grabbed my wrist in her small, surprisingly strong hand. I let out a gasp.
“I know that she has visited you,” she insisted in a low, serious voice. “I know that you’ve been seeing the curses. Don’t mess around with me, tell it to me straight. What do you see in the painting?”
I looked in her eyes, saw the understanding there. She knew what was happening to me, knew about my curse somehow. She’d said that she used to be a framer too; maybe it happened to her once. Maybe we all get visited by the woman with the Kali painting eventually. There was no sense in hiding it from her.
“It’s you,” I admitted. “You’re drowned, underwater.”
She withdrew her hand, clenched her jaw. “You don’t see the young japanese woman surrounded by fire?”
“What? No. It’s you, in water. You’re dead.”
She sighed, and began rolling up the painting again. “I knew it would catch up with me eventually.”
“But we can save you,” I insisted. “I’ve prevented other people from dying. We can figure out when it’s going to happen, and prevent it, now that we know!”
She tucked the painting back into her bag. “No. I know my fate. I won’t waste what’s left of my life fighting it. You’ve seen how it ends, and I can only accept it now.”
She turned to walk out, but stopped and turned back to me.
“Promise you won’t come after me,” she said. I could see the haunted look in her eyes, and realized that this was the culmination of her curse. It had been coming for her for a long time. Maybe this was why she was coming regularly to framers in the first place; keeping her finger on the pulse of her own fate.
“The address I gave you was fake, anyways,” she admitted as she walked out.
There were no more cursed images that day.
I caught up on my work, wrapped up a total of twelve orders and called their owners, before driving home and proceeding to get so wasted that I barely even remembered saturday.
Please don’t judge me, or think that this is how I usually am. It’s hard to overstate the pressure I’d been feeling. I was surrounded by nightmare imagery that stuck with me every time I closed my eyes. It was increasingly difficult to sleep, with murder, suicide, cannibalism, and child abuse plaguing my dreams. My usual method of letting off steam, first person shooters on my XBox, wasn’t cutting it. The blood and gore on the screen just made things worse. I found myself watching cheesy sci-fi movies from the sixties and seventies instead, laughing at stiff-limbed robots and paper-mache aliens. Somehow that led down a Netflix rabbit hole that led to old episodes of The Twilight Zone, and eventually to watching William Shatner desperately trying to tell everyone about the gremlin on the side of the airplane that was tearing out vital parts. Nobody believed him, though he was seeing the truth and doing everything he could to save them all.
Something about this hit too close to home for me, and I ended up crying myself to sleep on the couch.
Like I said, I don’t remember much of saturday, but I woke up sunday with a pounding headache and reeking of gin. I don’t buy gin often; it tastes like cheap perfume to me. But there was the bottle of Bombay Sapphire sitting by the kitchen sink, which incidentally reeked of vomit and wasn’t draining properly.
In the mirror, I looked like a complete mess. The dark circles around my eyes, my pale skin, my unshaved scruff. My hair was all over the place. I stunk like a gin-induced blackout.
I shaved, popped back a couple of tylenol, took a shower, and put on some clean clothes, which helped a bit. I felt a bit more human, although my head was still pounding and I was dreading going back to work tomorrow.
I used to hate my job. Now it was far, far worse. I felt like the stress of my job was going to kill me.
I needed to stretch, get some air, and clear my head. It was snowing and cold outside, but I wasn’t fazed. As I stepped outside, I reached into my pocket and found the pack of cigarettes there that I’d bought the other day. I only remembered having two or three, but now the pack was half gone. I pulled out another one and lit it.
As I walked I found myself avoiding images. There were “lost cat” pleas posted on telephone poles, bumper stickers on cars, billboard ads, and so on. Although the only “cursed” images so far had been ones that turned up at work, I still didn’t want to see anything that might contain an unexpected body or resemble someone’s childhood trauma.
At home, I found a new case of beer in the fridge calling my name. Presumably I’d bought it at the same time as the gin. But I didn’t want to deal with karmic curses and a hangover at the same time on a monday morning, so I left it where it was.
I spent most of the day trying desperately to find something on Netflix that wouldn’t make me an emotional wreck, finally settling on binge-watching cartoons.
Monday morning I felt less hung over, which was a blessing, but still every sound seemed to get my head pounding all over again. I brought a bottle of tylenol, which I set on the work table in the back and revisited several times that day.
As usual, I tried to use the part of the work bench that would allow me to keep an eye on the counter so that I could see customers coming. As usual, they still got confused. I was smiling and walking towards the man standing there, but he reached out and touched the bell anyway. I tried not to snap at him.
“I can help you,” I said, putting on my white gloves.
“Oh. I wasn’t sure if there was someone else back there.”
“Just me. What can I help you with?”
“Actually, I was talking to that nice girl the other day, I was just wondering if she was around. What’s her name again?”
“Oh, you mean Allie?”
“Yeah, that’s her name. She’s really sweet. She actually gave me her number, but I lost it.”
“Oh, she didn’t tell you? She actually started working at our downtown store. Just started there today. She doesn’t work here anymore.” I pushed the paper-feed button on the till, and it spat out some blank till receipt. I jotted down a made-up number on it and handed it to him.
“Oh. Wow. Thanks, man.”
“No worries. Tell her I say hi.”
The creep left, smiling, and I made a mental note to tell Janice that I’d helped her dodge a bullet.
As I was turning to go back into the shop, a man stepped up to the counter out of nowhere. He seemed irritated and impatient, and was clutching a cardboard box.
“Hi there!” I beamed with my customer-service voice. “How can I-”
“I got this framed here. The frame is falling apart. Really shoddy workmanship.” He frowned and thumped the box down on the counter.
I took a deep breath and opened the box. Inside was a frame that probably fallen off the wall, and the shattered glass that had gone with it. The frame moulding didn’t look familiar, but maybe it was an older piece from before I worked here. The frame looked like it had been solid, but was pretty badly wrecked now. This was obviously something else than shoddy workmanship. The wedding photo inside was pretty scratched up by the glass shards. I carefully picked it up and turned it over.
“Where did you say you got this done?” I asked pleasantly.
“Here,” he huffed.
“Oh? At this location?”
“Does it matter? They said they’d fix it for free, no matter where I took it.”
“Right. To any store in the chain, right?”
“Are you going to fix it or not?” he barked.
“Definitely not,” I said, pointing at the competitor’s sticker. “At least, not for free.”
He left with the box tucked under his arm, yelling behind him about our terrible customer service and how we should fix it for free anyway,
I’d dealt with enough of this garbage that it was like water off a duck’s back. I returned to my work. As it was monday, it was glass day, and that meant cutting all of the glass for the week’s orders. It’s a very satisfying process, but tedious and a little dangerous. Fortunately, I’d been upselling to acrylic a lot lately, which meant less risk of cutting myself on shattered glass.
Once I was done, I got out the paintbrush I used to clean the cutter from the inevitable tiny bits of glass that had collected. I was surprised to find, mixed in with the shards, a little irregular bit of blue glass.
It took a minute for me to figure out what it was from; when I held up to the light, I realized it was the same shade of blue as the Kali portrait. It was stunning, reflecting and refracting like a piece of sapphire. How had a piece of Kali gotten over here? I cleaned fairly regularly.
I couldn’t bear to throw it in the glass bin. I found a little clear plastic box, and placed it carefully inside. I put it in the filing cabinet, tucked away where no one would notice.
The next two days passed without incident, though every time the bell rang or a customer approached I felt anxiety tighten my chest. I could deal with yelling, angry customers so much more easily than pleasant ones with cursed artwork. No curses showed up, though.
Until thursday. It was October third, and Marion was having us decorate for the Thanksgiving and Halloween season. I realize a lot of the American readers reading this won’t know that Canadian Thanksgiving is in October, and a lot of the non-North American readers will be wondering what Thanksgiving is. Truth is, in retail Canadian Thanksgiving doesn’t mean much other than lots of fall-coloured decorations and maybe a small sale. But for an art supply store, Halloween can be a big deal. Lots of people come looking for craft supplies to help them make their costumes, pranks, and decorations. That meant condensing a display of pallette knives to make room for a bunch of construction paper, which had me rolling my eyes.
I almost forgot that it was now a month since the Kali incident. But I was reminded in a harsh way when a young couple came in to get their marriage certificate framed.
“Congratulations,” I said, lining it up for the camera. “When was the date?”
“August nineteenth,” she said smiling, putting her arm around her new husband. “We’ve just been really busy. Then last week I realized, oh my god, we still haven’t gotten it framed!”
“That’s not too bad,” I reassured her. “Most people have things sitting around for years before finally getting them framed.”
I squinted at the computer screen. The text didn’t look quite right. I turned the certificate to face me.
NAME OF THE WEAK-ASS PANSY CUCK WHO CAN’T STAND UP FOR HIMSELF: Harrison Michael Smythe
NAME OF THE BACKSTABBING CUNT WHO CHEATED ON HIM WITH THE BEST MAN LESS THAN AN HOUR BEFORE THE CEREMONY: Danielle Helena Webb
DATE THEY MADE THE WORST MISTAKE OF THEIR LIVES: August 19, 2019
PLACE THEY WENT $80,000 IN DEBT TO SATISFY HER MOTHER’S NEED FOR A FAIRYTALE WEDDING: Her parent’s country club, just to rub it in his face that she comes from a richer family
DATE HE WILL FIND HER FUCKING HIS OWN FATHER, REALIZE THAT THE BABY ISN’T HIS, AND MURDER THEM BOTH IN BED WITH HIS HUNTING RIFLE: October 7, 2019
“Fuck,” I swore, stepping back in disgust.
“What’s the matter?” Harrison asked, frowning.
I sighed. “I’m sorry, I don’t have time for the Hardy Boys routine this time. She’s pregnant, it’s not yours, she slept with the best man the day of the wedding, and she’s been having sex with your dad. Go get a divorce before something far worse happens.”
She slapped me, unsurprisingly. I honestly didn’t even care.
He, on the other hand, turned to her with a dark look on his face. I could tell he already knew in his heart, but had been in denial.
“Is this all true?” he asked her.
What?! Of course it’s not true! You know me better than that!”
He knew better, though. He picked up the certificate and began putting it back in its envelope with quiet, constrained fury. As he did, I saw the wording change; the curse was already broken.
“My own goddamn father,” he said quietly. “I knew it was somebody. I knew he’d been hanging around a lot lately. Now I get it. That’s disgusting, Danielle.” He turned and walked away.
“Baby, it’s not true!” She turned to look back at me, furious. I shrugged and watched them both leave.
After they left, I went back into the shop to finish my final order for the day: Ivan Krovopuskov’s Jefferson Starship concert poster. I smiled as I assembled it into the frame, sealed it with the paper backing, and picked up the phone to call him.
Oddly enough, the phone number wasn’t in service. I tried again to be sure, and got the same automated message.
Well, I could do one better than call him. I decided to drive down to his house after work and hand-deliver the package. After all, he and Jason and Albert were among the few people I truly considered friends now, even though I’d only met the three of them recently. I’d been with all three of them as they faced death, and helped them through it. It actually warmed my cold heart a bit.
After work, I drove down to his big old blue house, walked up the steps to the front door, and rang the bell. I could hear it echo inside. Nobody came.
I wondered if he was even at home, and realized that I might have missed him. I peeked in the window to the living room.
It was empty. Completely empty. Vacant, vacated. Nobody lived here. In shock, I walked around and looked in other windows. All of his furniture was gone. The basement window that should have showed his little music shrine room just showed emptiness.
In a daze, I drove home. What had happened? Had he left town? It was only a week since I’d seen him, how had things happened so fast?
When I got home, I plugged his name into Google.
He wasn’t in the obituaries; he had no surviving family, at least locally. But a short article in the Herald mentioned his name, almost as a passing thought, saying that he had commited suicide on October 1st. That was all.
My heart sank. I curled up in a ball on the couch, unwilling or unable to face it. I pulled out my cell and sent a group text to Albert and Jason: Ivan is dead. Suicide. We didn’t prevent it after all.
Albert: Oh no… are you okay? Where are you?
I’m home. I’m kind of messed up.
Albert: I’ll come over, what’s your address? You shouldn’t be alone.
Jason: I’ll come too.
Despite telling them both that I wanted to be alone for a while, they insisted, and soon they were at my apartment door. They gave me long, tight hugs, which I usually hate, but for the moment I decided to just accept the gesture and let them comfort me.
We drank a few beers and talked about Ivan, conjecturing about his life and his motivations for ending it. Eventually, I just needed to change the subject. I told them about Harrison and Danielle and their cursed marriage certificate, which got some smiles and snarky comments.
By the time they left, I was feeling somewhat better, but after they lift the hollowness hit me again. The intervention I’d done had meant nothing. In the moment it felt like a strange, spiritual experience, like something filling me up and taking me over and moving me to act. But all of it had been for nothing. The past had still eaten away at Ivan, and he’d finished the deed that I’d interrupted.
I barely slept that night, and the next day when I was dragging myself to the kitchen to make coffee, I was grateful that it was friday.
My karma left me alone that day. The usual parade of rude customers came and went and left me mostly alone. Janice, seeing how sleep-deprived I looked, bought us both coffee on her break. I did my usual work, assembled my usual frames and mats, and went home to my empty apartment and my unsatisfying life.
I got together with Jason and Albert on saturday; Albert insisted we go back to The Night Gallery, which made me uneasy, but he made the good argument that it was like thumbing our noses at fate. He wouldn’t die there, he assured me. We were not all fated to repeat the same tragedies over and over.
Monday came around again. I found Ivan’s order still sitting on the work table, still wrapped up. I still didn’t know what to do with it. When evening came, I made the decision to take it home and hang it up on my own wall. I didn’t know what had happened to the rest of his belongings, but Jason suggested that they were probably sold in an estate sale to pay off his remaining debts and the costs of his cremation. We did some searching online and weren’t able to find any next of kin, or even much information about Ivan himself. So I unilaterally named myself his next of kin, and hung his last remaining possession in my own home.
On Tuesday, the ninth cursed image showed up. Most of the rest had been sort of unexpected, but this one I saw coming. The customer was tall, clean-shaven below the nose and the eyebrows, heavily tattooed, heavily muscled, and looked as tired as I did.
“Hey there,” he said solemnly. “I have something unusual for you to frame.”
“Unusual is my specialty,” I said honestly. I realized as I said it that it probably sounded cryptic.
“Oh. Good. Here it is.” He pulled out a plastic document protector, and opened it up to reveal a signed letter.
I tried not to be too nosy, but he saw me glancing at it.
“Go ahead and read it if you like, I don’t mind. It’s not a secret.”
Two paragraphs in, I realized that the letter was an oncologist’s official statement of his diagnosis of cancer. The man in front of me, despite looking like the traditional idea of healthy, was about to get very, very sick.
“It’s liver cancer,” the muscle-man confirmed. “I know it’s a weird thing to get framed, but I’ve got my reasons.”
I was a bit relieved about that- it wasn’t a prophecy of this man’s death, just a mundane fact of medical knowledge. What really caught me off guard, though, was the final paragraph above the doctor’s signature:
“Ironically, Mr. Whitaker would have gone into an unexpected full remission later this year if not for the fact that his impending death led to his risk-taking behaviour which caused him to die in an untimely motorcycle accident on October 24, 2019.”
I sighed and took down his personal information, then photographed the letter and got to work on the design.
When I shared the new curse with my friends, Albert had a clever, but dangerous and illegal solution to the predicted death of Keaton Whitaker. He made me take him to Whitaker’s house, where we waited until we were sure no-one was home. He broke into Whitaker’s garage and tampered somehow with the Harley; he assured me it wouldn’t cause an accident, but would be some pretty expensive repairs and keep the bike out of service for a while. True to his word, the oncologist's letter was changed the next day, the dire prediction removed. Keaton Whitaker still thought he was going to die of cancer, and as much as I wished I could tell him that it was going to be okay, he would never believe me. I comforted myself knowing that he would find out on his own in the natural course of time.
The next week I handed Whitaker his finished work, and he was grateful. He tried to tip me, but I assured him that it wasn’t necessary.
That same day, the tenth cursed image came across my desk. I didn’t recognize it for what it was, at first. It was the front page of the local newspaper; not an uncommon thing to get framed when you wanted to mark a particular day or a front-page event. I assumed someone had been born or married that day. The front page itself was nothing special, some mention of the opioid crisis, something about a native cultural celebration, an op-ed piece about Greta Thunberg. I suggest a mat border to match the paper’s blue colour scheme, and a generic, contemporary black frame to match any decor. The customer, a fifty-something woman with pink hair, loved it.
It wasn’t until Jackson was doing the remeasure that I noticed the weird text in the opioid crisis article:
“...One of the main reasons doctors overprescribed is that the companies get out get out get out get out get out get out get out you need to get out of here before it comes to you claim that opioids posed a low risk of addiction…”
I blinked and read it again. It was definitely there, and so subtle and minor that I wouldn’t have noticed if I hadn’t been looking for things like this.
As soon as Jackson was satisfied with my measurements and out of sight, I texted Jason and Albert.
Got another one. I’ll send a pic. Not much for clues this time.
I took a picture of the newspaper article and read it again. It sent shivers down my spine, partly because it felt targeted at me. I wanted out. I wanted to escape this place. I felt like the curse was coming for me, and sending me all of these orders was just its way of toying with me.
submitted by OneFaraday to nosleep [link] [comments]


2019.10.10 15:52 zoey2499 hair loss around eye and subsequent symptoms: 3 1/2 year old cat

species: cat
age: 3 1/2
sex/neuter status: female, spayed
breed: bombay
body weight: 9lbs
history: has diagnosed separation anxiety and sensitive stomach, no known allergies, used to live in unhealthy environment and was not actual fed cat food until about 8 months ago. about a month and a half ago she was on amoxicillin to treat the beginning of a URI. we gave her multivitamins at this time as well to help w the antibiotics. she is up to date on all her vaccines and is strictly an indoors cat. we have one other cat (5months male) and he is not displaying any issues.
clinical signs: overgrooming, watering of right eye, hair loss around eye. she seems more irritated than normal, however she is still sleeping, eating, drinking, and playing as normal.
duration: noticed about a month ago, but significantly in the past two weeks
general location: central florida
link to photos of eye: https://imgur.com/gallery/CYZlSNe top photo is july 29 and bottom photo is this morning
made a vet appointment today for 4:00pm. very worried about my baby. she has not been herself the past few weeks and i think it is because of this
edit: sorry for the formatting on mobile
submitted by zoey2499 to AskVet [link] [comments]


2019.10.07 17:12 UnbrandedTshirts I Googled love, it said "No results found".

I think I've forgotten how to date.
The last time I went on a date—last year in November—I went back to his place after two drinks, he kissed me by his bookshelf and I, even though not feeling it, kept going back over the next five months. It was simple and uncomplicated, we never spoke on the phone, texted only to figure when to meet, and he always knew what to do with my glasses. He wasn't terribly attractive, but he had interesting, strong hands. He made me feel "full" (in all imaginable ways) and also really, really empty.
Sometimes on the way home from his place I cried in taxis while smoking menthol cigarettes. I felt like I was being dishonest to my body—sleeping with yet another man whom I did not love, whom I could even barely tolerate, tbh. I brushed my teeth as soon as I reached home—chocolate condoms never taste like chocolate.
Yet, horniness happened, and I returned. Again. And again. And again.
Then, finally in May, something broke in me. I hadn't visited him in a while, and he'd been getting clingy.
I just snapped.
Which is great. I wasn't getting sex but I felt like I'd gotten back my body. Only, I haven't been able to date ever since.
First of, there is the matter of whom to date? In books and films people meet future husbands and girlfriends and fuck buddies on the train, in share cabs, in libraries, in shopping malls. And I think I meet just no one. Last time I met someone I liked and replayed the way their dimples looked in my head for the next three days, they turned out to be married (His 11-yr-old daughter and I had a great conversation when I was at his place). Then I met someone who was smart, and funny, and turns out he hates dating and thinks 'I'm too young for his jaded self.' I got close to the elder sister of a good friend, and we spoke hours into the night—just so that she could tell me about this other woman she liked!?
I'm tired of walking into blind turns. Where does one find "love". People keep saying when you're not looking for love, you find it. How do you pretend to not look for love? And what if you really aren't, it'll come whack you when you least expect it!?? What kind of trash theory is that?
Second, love is hard work. Dating someone involves navigating through parents (mine are conservative), taking out time to talk to the person and meet them, not being a workaholic, etc. I just don't think I have the energy to do that. I'm 23. I'm too busy juggling work, freelance, drama, studies. Of course you'll then say, "suck it, if you can't invest the time why are you lamenting the lack of anyone." Because, because shouldn't someone appear from behind a lamppost, or a stack of watermelons who looks into my eyes and makes me feel like they're worth all my Saturdays and Sundays and worth staying up till 4am and screwing up my sleep cycle for?
Ughhh. I know I sound confused. I am. I'm loveless in Bombay, looking for love and wondering why the square shaped one available won't fit my circular heart. If you've survived this very dramatic post, thank you. Thank you for reading. Tell me about you, if you've ever felt this way.
TL;DR: Where does one find love? (And I don't mean lust or a good lay,) I mean love that makes you want to give up on other things on your to do list and stay.
submitted by UnbrandedTshirts to relationships [link] [comments]


2019.09.05 01:55 danceonme Primavera 2020: Official Confirmed/Rumors/Wishlist

LAST UPDATED: January 15, 2020
Hi all,
As we are now starting to see more rumors fly around and 2020 festivals get announced, I think it's safe to start an official confirmed/rumors post. As this is a community, would love any and all input. Please comment below with any knowledge you have about an artist performing (or not performing) at Primavera 2020 and why you think they may perform (if you have source material like a website, that would be great but not required). I'll update this regularly and place the artists under the following buckets: Confirmed (5), Very Likely (4), Possible (3), Unlikely (2), Out (1)
Keep in mind with The New Normal theme we should expect another 50/50 gender split or close to it.
Hard to say when the lineup will be announced but my bet is on the earlier side (December), which gives Primavera more time to market and sell tickets. Below are the previous 3 year announcement dates:
Nov 30, 2016 - Primavera 2017 Announced
Jan 28, 2018 - Primavera 2018 Announced
Dec 6, 2018 - Primavera 2019 Announced
Nov 28, 2019 - Primavera Radio confirmed 11 artists for 2020
Dec 2, 2019 - Primavera Radio confirmed 4 artists for 2020
Dec 9, 2019 - Primavera Radio confirmed 4 artists for 2020
Dec 16, 2019 - Primavera Radio confirmed 4 more artists for 2020
Dec 19, 2019 - Primavera teaser video #bestfestivalever confirms Shellac and DJ Coco
Jan 16, 2020 at 10am Barcelona time** - Complete Primavera 2020 Announcement
**Countdown clock is live now: https://www.primaverasound.com/en **
--------------------------------------------------------------------
All sections below in alphabetical order (a, b, c...)
Confirmed (26 of 230 artists)
Semi-Confirmed (tour routing and other intel has all but confirmed)
Likely (not enough information to confirm but good indication these artists will be performing)
Possible/Wishlist
Unlikely (but not out)
Out
submitted by danceonme to primaverasound [link] [comments]


2019.08.17 17:58 Slash787 Zoya Akhtar and Reema Kagti

A few years ago I did hear about them being in a relationship. But any idea if there is any truth to it?
They have included same sex relationships in their movies like Honeymoon Travels and Bombay Talkies. I heard even their latest web series Made in Heaven has it.
I am not sure but I haven't seen or heard Zoya Akthar dating a guy and Reema Kagti looks like someone who would be interested in girls.
Nothing wrong and its their personal choice, I am no one to judge them.
submitted by Slash787 to BollyBlindsNGossip [link] [comments]


2019.06.21 17:18 CopyPastePoster The rape charge was more damaging to my mind than my career-Karan Oberoi

You were arrested on May 5. What exactly happened on that day?
I was about to sleep around 10 pm, when the cops came to my house. They asked me to accompany them to the police station, but refused to divulge the reason. At first, I thought that it was a case of mistaken identity. At the station, the investigating officer asked me to submit my phone. After checking it, he told me about the rape charge. I told him that I am innocent, and in fact, I had filed an NC on October 17, 2018, citing harassment by the lady in question. However, he asked me to send for my laptop immediately. They didn’t even allow me to call anyone in the family, but fortunately, I managed to contact my sister, Gurbani.

When was the last time you contacted the complainant?
A few days before I filed the NC against her. She had called me, saying that she is in trouble. However, when I met her, she tried to hit me. That’s when I realised that she is beyond help and nothing could be done to change her mind.

The complainant has claimed that you were in a relationship with her. Is that true? How and where did you first meet her, and at what point did your association turn sour?
We met on a dating app, where she introduced herself as a healer and astrologer. Then we shifted to WhatsApp and slowly got talking. She did not tell me that she was into witchcraft and voodoo, but I soon realised that something was amiss. She would often tell me that I am a misfit and that I needed someone like her to protect me.

These conversations started making me uncomfortable, and finally, she told me that she is a wiccan, who has been practising black magic and occult for years. She told me that she could change my destiny by giving me the power to control anyone in the industry.

She also claimed that she could cause irreparable damage to anyone she wants to. So, a few months after meeting her, I told her that I wanted to end our association. In fact, I was so scared that I started avoiding her.

Then one day, she told me that she wanted to end the occult practice and take up another profession; she wanted to start by designing my home. I was foolish enough to believe her, and even gave her some money to do up my home. I thought I was helping someone.
She was extremely short-tempered and would flare up over petty things. After one such fight, she left the work mid-way and I had to ask somebody else to step in. But she had an issue with that, too. She landed up at my house, and alleged that she had been used, abused and discarded. But the matter didn’t end there. She would land up at my building and ask me to meet her. If I refused, she would threaten to harm my reputation. I tried to reason with her for the longest time, but finally, I asked the security guards to not allow her on the premises.

Then, she started leaving gifts with the building’s security guards, and if I refused to take them, she would threaten to burn the gifts in front of the gate and create a huge tamasha. It was nothing short of a nightmare, and I didn’t know who to confide in.

Once, my mother fell ill and we couldn’t figure out what was wrong with her. Around that time, she called and asked me, if my mother was alright. When I broke down, she told me, ‘You don’t know my powers’. Four days later, my father, too, fell ill.
That is when I surrendered in terms of accepting her calls. I was scared that she would harm my family. However, I blocked her calls, eventually. I also had to block her from social media because she would stalk me. Not the one to give up, she started texting me at random hours from different numbers. She once told me that she has slit her wrist and even threatened to have me booked for abetment of suicide. But no matter what she claims, I never promised her marriage. Looking back, I regret not converting the NC into an FIR.
According to her FIR, you raped her in January 2017 and also filmed the act, which she claims was used by you for extortion and blackmail...
That’s a figment of her imagination. If somebody rapes you, then you don’t text him saying, ‘Hi Sweety!’ Also, you won’t ask for sex or plead with the ‘rapist’ to answer your calls. Rape is a heinous crime and you can’t make these charges in a frivolous manner. Tell her to give the date when the rape happened. How can someone not remember the date of an incident of that magnitude? She knows that if she errs with the date, her charges will fall flat.

(BOMBAY TIMES; June 18, 2019)
submitted by CopyPastePoster to BollyBlindsNGossip [link] [comments]


2019.04.29 11:12 tombstoneshadows28 Full Turner Classic Movies schedule for the month of May, 2019. (USA-EST)

Wednesday, May 01, 2019
(6:00 AM) Alias French Gertie (1930/68m/George Archainbaud)
(7:30 AM) Blondie Johnson (1933/68m/Ray Enright)
(8:45 AM) House of Numbers (1957/92m/Russell Rouse)
(10:30 AM) Stronger Than Desire (1939/78m/Leslie Fenton)
(12:00 PM) This Woman Is Dangerous (1952/97m/Felix Feist)
(1:45 PM) Paid (1930/86m/Sam Wood)
(3:30 PM) Lady Gangster (1942/62m/Florian Roberts)
(4:45 PM) Midnight Mary (1933/74m/William Wellman)
(6:15 PM) Ring Of Fire (1961/91m/Andrew L. Stone)
(8:00 PM) Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956/113m/Robert Wise)
(10:00 PM) The Rack (1956/100m/Arnold Laven)
Thursday, May 02, 2019
(12:00 AM) Until They Sail (1957/95m/Robert Wise)
(1:45 AM) The Helen Morgan Story (1957/118m/Michael Curtiz)
(4:00 AM) The Silver Chalice (1954/135m/Victor Saville)
(6:30 AM) Public Enemy’s Wife (1936/68m/Nick Grinde)
(7:45 AM) China Sky (1945/78m/Ray Enright)
(9:15 AM) The Chocolate Soldier (1941/102m/Roy Del Ruth)
(11:00 AM) Cause For Alarm (1951/74m/Tay Garnett)
(12:15 PM) The Heavenly Body (1943/95m/Alexander Hall)
(2:00 PM) Sinner’s Holiday (1930/60m/John G. Adolfi)
(3:15 PM) The Guardsman (1931/82m/Sidney Franklin)
(4:45 PM) Rage In Heaven (1941/85m/W.S. Van Dyke II)
(6:15 PM) It’s Love I’m After (1937/90m/Archie L. Mayo)
(8:00 PM) Since You Went Away (1944/172m/John Cromwell)
(11:00 PM) Mrs. Miniver (1942/134 m/William Wyler)
Friday, May 03, 2019
(1:30 AM) Happy Land (1943/75m/Irving Pichel)
(3:00 AM) The Human (1943/117m/Clarence Brown)
(5:15 AM) The White Cliffs of Dover (1944/126m/Clarence Brown)
(7:30 AM) The Scarecrow (1920/18m/?)
(8:00 AM) Two Arabian Knights (1927/92m/Lewis Milestone)
(9:45 AM) Turnabout (1940/84m/Hal Roach)
(11:15 AM) Dodsworth (1936/101m/William Wyler)
(1:00 PM) The Southerner (1945/93m/Jean Renoir)
(4:30 PM) The Black Book (1949/89m/Anthony Mann)
(6:15 PM) Our Town (1940/89m/Sam Wood)
(8:00 PM) The Time, The Place and the Girl (1946/105m/David Butler)
(10:00 PM) Lady of Burlesque (1943/90m/William A. Wellman)
Saturday, May 04, 2019
(12:00 AM) Born To Dance (1936/106m/Roy Del Ruth)
(2:00 AM) Mac and Me (1988/99m/Stuart Raffill)
(4:00 AM) The Garbage Pail Kids Movie (1987/97m/Rod Amateau)
(6:00 AM) The Haunting (1963/112m/Robert Wise)
(8:00 AM) MGM CARTOONS: The Calico Dragon (1935/8m/Hugh Harman)
(8:10 AM) Dancing on the Ceiling (1937/9m/Murray Roth)
(8:21 AM) The Big Blue Goose (1956/8m/Van Campen Heilner)
(8:30 AM) Sundown Trail (1931/53m/Robert F. Hill)
(9:30 AM) FLASH GORDON CONQUERS THE UNIVERSE: Stark Treachery (SERIAL) (1940/21m/?)
(10:00 AM) POPEYE: Lost and Foundry (1937/7m/Dave Fleischer)
(10:09 AM) The Falcon’s Brother (1942/63m/Stanley Logan)
(11:30 AM) Once Over Lightly (1938/19m/Will Jason)
(12:00 PM) Dodge City (1939/104m/Michael Curtiz)
(2:00 PM) Forbidden Planet (1956/98m/Fred McLeod)
(3:45 PM) The Wonderful Country (1959/98m/Robert Parrish)
(5:30 PM) The Train (1964/133m/John Frankenheimer)
(8:00 PM) Marty (1955/90m/Delbert Mann)
(10:00 PM) The Catered Affair (1956/94m/Richard Brooks)
(11:41 PM) Dark Magic (1939/10m/Roy Rowland)
Sunday, May 05, 2019
(12:00 AM) Nightmare Alley (1947/111m/Edmund Goulding)
(2:00 AM) Petulia (1968/105m/Richard Lester)
(4:00 AM) The Gypsy Moths (1969/107m/John Frankenheimer)
(6:00 AM) Conquest (1937/112m/Clarence Brown)
(8:00 AM) The Woman In White (1948/109m/Peter Godfrey)
(10:00 AM) Nightmare Alley (1947/111m/Edmund Goulding)
(12:00 PM) Ninotchka (1939/110m/Ernst Lubitsch)
(2:00 PM) Gilda (1946/110m/Charles Vidor)
(4:00 PM) The Miracle Worker (1962/107m/Arthur Penn)
(6:00 PM) In the Heat of the Night (1967/110m/Norman Jewison)
(8:00 PM) The Misfits (1961/12m/John Huston)
(10:15 PM) McLintock! (1963/122m/Andrew V. McLaglen)
Monday, May 06, 2019
(12:30 AM) The Noise of Bombs (1914/12m/?)
(12:30 AM) Shot In The Excitement (1914/12m/?)
(12:30 AM) Life In The Balance (1913/11m/?)
(12:30 AM) His Bitter Pill (1916/20m/Fred Hibbard)
(12:30 AM) Comrades (1911/11m/Mack Sennett)
(12:30 AM) The Great Toe Mystery (1914/11m/?)
(2:00 AM) Princess From The Moon (1987/121m/Kon Ichikawa)
(4:15 AM) Her Brother (1960/98m/Kon Ichikawa)
(6:00 AM) Five Came Back (1939/75m/John Farrow)
(7:30 AM) Keeper of the Flame (1943/101m/George Cukor)
(9:15 AM) The Great Lie (1941/108m/Edmund Goulding)
(11:15 AM) Life Begins For Andy Hardy (1941/101m/George B. Seitz)
(1:00 PM) The Wrong Man (1956/105m/Alfred Hitchcock)
(3:00 PM) The Green Promise (1949/81m/William D. Russell)
(4:30 PM) Close To My Heart (1951/90m/William Keighley)
(6:15 PM) Stage Door (1937/92m/Gregory LaCava)
(8:00 PM) Cabin In The Sky (1943/99m/Vincente Minnelli)
(10:00 PM) Bright Road (1953/68m/Gerald Mayer)
(11:30 PM) A Raisin In The Sun (1961/128m/Daniel Petrie)
Tuesday, May 07, 2019
(2:00 AM) Shaft (1971/100m/Gordon Parks)
(4:00 AM) Within Our Gates (1920/74m/Oscar Micheaux)
(5:15 AM) The Jackie Robinson Story (1950/77m/Alfred E. Green)
(6:45 AM) Gary Cooper: American Life, American Legend (1991/46m/Richard Schickel)
(7:45 AM) It (1927/77m/Clarence Badger)
(9:00 AM) One Sunday Afternoon (1933/69m/Stephen Roberts)
(10:15 AM) Friendly Persuasion (1956/138m/William Wyler)
(12:45 PM) A Farewell To Arms (1932/89m/Frank Borzage)
(2:15 PM) Dallas (1950/94m/Stuart Heisler)
(4:00 PM) The Hanging Tree (1959/107m/Delmer Daves)
(6:00 PM) The Wreck of the Mary Deare (1959/105m/Michael Anderson)
(8:00 PM) It Happened One Night (1934/105m/Frank Capra)
(10:00 PM) Bluebeard's Eighth Wife (1938/85m/Ernst Lubitsch)
(11:45 PM) My Man Godfrey (1936/94m/Gregory LaCava)
Wednesday, May 08, 2019
(1:30 AM) Bringing Up Baby (1938/102m/Howard Hawks)
(3:30 AM) Rafter Romance (1933/73m/William Seiter)
(5:00 AM) Petticoat Fever (1936/80m/Geo. Fitzmaurice)
(6:30 AM) The Girl Downstairs (1938/77m/Norman Taurog)
(8:00 AM) The Big Steal (1949/71m/Don Siegel)
(9:15 AM) Jeopardy (1953/69m/John Sturges)
(10:30 AM) Border Incident (1949/95m/Anthony Mann)
(12:15 PM) Borderline (1950/88m/William A. Seiter)
(2:00 PM) Second Chance (1953/82m/Rudy Maté)
(3:30 PM) His Kind of Woman (1951/120m/John Farrow)
(5:45 PM) Out of the Past (1947/97m/Jacques Tourneur)
(7:30 PM) MGM Parade Show #22 (1955/29m/?)
(8:00 PM) The Young Philadelphians (1959/136m/Vincent Sherman)
(10:30 PM) The Long Hot Summer (1958/117m/Martin Ritt)
Thursday, May 09, 2019
(12:45 AM) Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958/108m/Richard Brooks)
(2:45 AM) Sweet Bird of Youth (1962/120m/Richard Brooks)
(5:00 AM) Rachel, Rachel (1968/101m/Paul Newman)
(7:00 AM) Girl of the Golden West (1938/121m/Robert Z. Leonard)
(9:15 AM) Let Freedom Ring (1939/87m/Jack Conway)
(11:00 AM) The Harvey Girls (1946/101m/George Sidney)
(12:45 PM) Two Guys from Texas (1948/86m/David Butler)
(2:15 PM) Annie Get Your Gun (1950/107m/George Sidney)
(4:15 PM) Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1954/102m/Stanley Donen)
(6:15 PM) The Fastest Guitar Alive (1967/87m/Michael Moore)
(8:00 PM) The More The Merrier (1943/104m/George Stevens)
(10:00 PM) The Miracle of Morgan’s Creek (1944/99m/Preston Sturges)
Friday, May 10, 2019
(12:00 AM) The Clock (1945/90m/Vincente Minnelli)
(1:45 AM) Miracle In The Rain (1956/107m/Rudolph Maté)
(3:45 AM) Class Of ’44 (1973/95m/Paul Bogart)
(5:30 AM) The Very Thought of You (1944/98m/Delmer Daves)
(7:15 AM) Janie (1944/102m/Michael Curtiz)
(9:00 AM) Once A Doctor (1937/58m/William Clemens)
(10:00 AM) Queen Of Outer Space (1958/80m/Edward Bernds)
(11:30 AM) The Unholy Wife (1957/94m/John Farrow)
(1:15 PM) I Married A Woman (1958/84m/Hal Kanter)
(2:45 PM) The Prince and the Showgirl (1957/117m/Laurence Olivier)
(4:45 PM) Illegal (1955/88m/Lewis Allen)
(6:30 PM) Born Reckless (1959/79m/Howard W. Koch)
(8:00 PM) The Seven Ups (1973/103m/Philip D’Antoni)
(10:00 PM) The French Connection (1971/104m/William Friedkin)
Saturday, May 11, 2019
(12:00 AM) Bullitt (1968/114m/Peter Yates)
(2:30 AM) The Chocolate War (1988/104m/Keith Gordon)
(4:15 AM) Class (1983/98m/Lewis John Carlino)
(6:00 AM) Designing Woman (1957/118m/Vincente Minnelli)
(8:00 AM) MGM CARTOONS: The Field Mouse (1941/9m/Hugh Harman)
(8:11 AM) Fish Tales (1954/8m/Carl Dudley)
(8:20 AM) Canoeman's Holiday (1956/8m/Douglas Sinclair)
(8:29 AM) Wyoming Roundup (1952/53m/Thomas Carr)
(9:30 AM) FLASH GORDON CONQUERS THE UNIVERSE: Doom of the Dictator (SERIAL) (1940/21m/?)
(10:00 AM) POPEYE: I Never Changes My Altitude (1937/6m/Dave Fleischer)
(10:08 AM) The Falcon Strikes Back (1943/66m/Edward Dmytryk)
(11:30 AM) Happily Buried (1939/20m/Felix E. Feist)
(12:00 PM) Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939/130m/Frank Capra)
(2:30 PM) All The King's Men (1949/110m/Robert Rossen)
(4:30 PM) 3:10 to Yuma (1957/92m/Delmer Daves)
(6:15 PM) Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964/95m/Stanley Kubrick)
Sunday, May 12, 2019
(12:00 AM) White Heat (1949/113m/Raoul Walsh)
(2:00 AM) A Dream Of Kings (1969/110m/Daniel Mann)
(4:00 AM) Flap (1970/106m/Carol Reed)
(6:00 AM) Roughly Speaking (1945/117m/Michael Curtiz)
(8:15 AM) Nancy Goes To Rio (1950/100m/Robert Z. Leonard)
(10:00 AM) White Heat (1949/113m/Raoul Walsh)
(12:00 PM) Bachelor Mother (1939/82m/Garson Kanin)
(1:30 PM) Stella Dallas (1937/106m/King Vidor)
(3:30 PM) Mildred Pierce (1945/111m/Michael Curtiz)
(5:30 PM) Pocketful of Miracles (1961/137m/Frank Capra)
(8:00 PM) I Remember Mama (1948/134m/George Stevens)
(10:30 PM) Yours, Mine and Ours (1968/111m/Melville Shavelson)
Monday, May 13, 2019
(12:30 AM) Gribiche (1925/113m/Jacques Feyder)
(2:30 AM) Autumn Sonata (1978/94m/Ingmar Bergman)
(4:15 AM) My Life As A Dog (1985/101m/Lasse Hallström)
(6:15 AM) Dementia 13 (1963/75m/Francis Ford Coppola)
(7:45 AM) Night Must Fall (1964/101m/Karel Reisz)
(9:30 AM) The Strangler (1964/89m/Burt Topper)
(11:15 AM) The Couch (1962/100m/Owen Crump)
(1:15 PM) The Bad Seed (1956/129m/Mervyn Le Roy)
(3:30 PM) A Bucket Of Blood (1959/65m/Roger Corman)
(4:45 PM) The Hitch-Hiker (1953/71m/Ida Lupino)
(6:15 PM) Badlands (1973/94m/Terrence Malick)
(8:00 PM) The Eyes of Orson Welles (2018/110m/Mark Cousins)
(10:00 PM) The Trial (1963/119m/Orson Welles)
Tuesday, May 14, 2019
(12:15 AM) Confidential Report (1955/106m/Orson Welles)
(2:15 AM) Citizen Kane (1941/119m/Orson Welles)
(4:30 AM) The Lady From Shanghai (1948/87m/Orson Welles)
(6:00 AM) Chimes at Midnight (1967/116m/Orson Welles)
(8:15 AM) The Gay Falcon (1942/67m/Irving Reis)
(9:30 AM) A Date with the Falcon (1941/63m/Irving Reis)
(10:45 AM) The Falcon Takes Over (1942/63m/Irving Reis)
(12:00 PM) Murder, My Sweet (1944/95m/Edward Dmytryk)
(1:45 PM) The Big Sleep (1946/114m/Howard Hawks)
(4:00 PM) Lady In The Lake (1947/103m/Robert Montgomery)
(6:00 PM) Strangers On A Train (1951/101m/Alfred Hitchcock)
(8:00 PM) The Shop Around The Corner (1940/99m/Ernst Lubitsch)
(10:00 PM) The Bride Came C.O.D. (1941/92m/William Keighley)
Wednesday, May 15, 2019
(12:00 AM) A Girl, A Guy and a Gob (1941/90m/Richard Wallace)
(2:00 AM) Music In My Heart (1940/70m/Joseph Santley)
(3:30 AM) They Met In Bombay (1941/92m/Clarence Brown)
(5:15 AM) Cross Country Romance (1940/68m/Frank Woodruff)
(6:30 AM) The Lady Takes a Sailor (1949/99m/Michael Curtiz)
(8:30 AM) From The Earth To The Moon (1958/100m/Byron Haskin)
(10:30 AM) White Comanche (1968/95m/Jose Briz)
(12:15 PM) Journey Into Fear (1942/68m/Norman Foster)
(1:30 PM) Gaslight (1944/114m/George Cukor)
(3:30 PM) The Man with a Cloak (1951/81m/Fletcher Markle)
(5:00 PM) Walk Softly, Stranger (1950/81m/Robert Stevenson)
(6:30 PM) The Magnificent Ambersons (1942/88m/Orson Welles)
(8:00 PM) Hud (1962/112m/Martin Ritt)
(10:00 PM) Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969/110m/George Roy Hill)
Thursday, May 16, 2019
(12:00 AM) The Life And Times Of Judge Roy Bean (1972/123m/John Huston)
(2:15 AM) The Outrage (1964/96m/Martin Ritt)
(4:00 AM) The Left-Handed Gun (1958/102m/Arthur Penn)
(6:00 AM) The Devil-Doll (1936/78m/Tod Browning)
(7:30 AM) Attack of the Puppet People (1958/79m/Bert I. Gordon)
(9:00 AM) The 7th Voyage of Sinbad (1958/88m/Nathan Juran)
(10:30 AM) Tom Thumb (1958/92m/George Pal)
(12:15 PM) Absolute Quiet (1936/70m/George B. Seitz)
(1:30 PM) Wildcat Bus (1940/64m/Frank Woodruff)
(2:45 PM) Daredevil Drivers (1938/60m/B. Reeves Eason)
(4:00 PM) Truck Busters (1943/58m/B. Reeves Eason)
(5:15 PM) Red Hot Tires (1935/61m/D. Ross Lederman)
(6:30 PM) Violent Road (1958/86m/Howard W. Koch)
(8:00 PM) Hollywood Canteen (1944/124m/Delmer Daves)
(10:30 PM) Tender Comrade (1943/102m/Edward Dmytryk)
Friday, May 17, 2019
(12:30 AM) Millions Like Us (1943/103m/Sidney Gilliat)
(2:30 AM) Air Raid Warden (1943/67m/Edward Sedgwick)
(3:45 AM) The War Against Mrs. Hadley (1942/86m/Harold Bucquet)
(5:15 AM) The Gentle Sex (1943/92m/Leslie Howard)
(7:00 AM) Rationing (1943/93m/Willis Goldbeck)
(8:45 AM) Main Street Today (1944/20m/Edward L. Cahn)
(9:15 AM) Hide-Out (1934/81m/W.S. Van Dyke)
(10:45 AM) The Flame Within (1935/72m/Edmund Goulding)
(12:00 PM) Never Too Late (1965/104m/Bud Yorkin)
(2:00 PM) Tarzan The Ape Man (1932/100m/W.S. Van Dyke)
(4:00 PM) David Copperfield (1935/130m/George Cukor)
(6:30 PM) The Bishop Misbehaves (1933/86m/E.A. Dupont)
(8:00 PM) A Blueprint For Murder (1953/76m/Andrew Stone)
(9:30 PM) All About Eve (1950/138m/Joseph L. Mankiewicz)
Saturday, May 18, 2019
(12:00 AM) The Last Challenge (1967/96m/Richard Thorpe)
(2:00 AM) Rappin’ (1985/93m/Joel Silberg)
(4:00 AM) Beat Street (1984/106m/Stan Lathan)
(6:00 AM) Green Mansions (1959/104m/Mel Ferrer)
(8:00 AM) MGM CARTOONS: The Goose Goes South (1941/6m/William Hanna)
(8:08 AM) Radio Hams (1939/10m/Felix E. Feist)
(8:19 PM) Ice Climbers (1956/8m/?)
(8:28 AM) Renegades of the West (1933/55m/Casey Robinson)
(9:30 AM) Lost City of the Jungle: Himalaya (1946/?/?)
(10:00 AM) POPEYE: I Likes Babies and Infinks (1937/7m/Dave Fleischer)
(10:09 AM) The Falcon In Danger (1943/70m/William Clemens)
(11:30 AM) Beers and Pretzels (1933/21m/Jack Cummings)
(12:00 PM) Here Comes Mr. Jordan (1941/94m/Alexander Hall)
(1:45 PM) The Lusty Men (1952/113m/Nicholas Ray)
(3:45 PM) The Man From Laramie (1955/102m/Anthony Mann)
(5:45 PM) The Manchurian Candidate (1962/127m/John Frankenheimer)
(8:00 PM) Cabin In The Sky (1943/99m/Vincente Minnelli)
(10:00 PM) Stormy Weather (1943/78m/Andrew Stone)
Sunday, May 19, 2019
(12:00 AM) Key Largo (1948/100m/John Huston)
(2:00 AM) Marlowe (1969/95m/Paul Bogart)
(4:00 AM) Deathtrap (1982/116m/Sidney Lumet)
(6:00 AM) Roberta (1935/106m/William A. Seiter)
(8:00 AM) Too Hot To Handle (1938/107m/Jack Conway)
(10:00 AM) Key Largo (1948/100m/John Huston)
(12:00 PM) The Awful Truth (1937/91m/Leo McCarey)
(1:45 PM) That Uncertain Feeling (1941/83m/Ernst Lubitsch)
(3:15 PM) The Last Hurrah (1958/121m/John Ford)
(5:30 PM) Irma la Douce (1963/143m/Billy Wilder)
(8:00 PM) To Kill A Mockingbird (1962/129m/Robert Mulligan)
(10:30 PM) The Trip To Bountiful (1985/108m/Peter Masterson)
Monday, May 20, 2019
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps in Their Master's Voice (1921/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps' Fly Swatter (1916/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps at the Dentist (1918/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps Helps Out a Book Agent (1916/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps' Last Smoke (1919/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps and His Pointer Pup (1916/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps Gets a Substitute (1916/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps Caught in the Jamb (1918/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps, Surf Rider (1917/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps in Hunting and Fishing (1921/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps Adopts A Turtle (1917/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps, Chef (1917/?/?)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps Starts For School (1917/5m/Earl Hurd)
(12:30 AM) Bobby Bumps and Fido's Birthday Party (1917/?/?)
(2:00 AM) Watership Down (1978/92m/Martin Rosen)
(3:45 AM) Twice Upon a Time (1983/74m/John Korty)
(5:15 AM) MGM Parade Show #22 (1955/26m/?)
(6:00 AM) Too Young To Kiss (1951/89m/Robert Z. Leonard)
(7:45 AM) Lost Angel (1943/91m/Roy Rowland)
(9:30 AM) All-American Chump (1936/63m/Edwin L. Marin)
(10:45 AM) The Mad Genius (1931/80m/Michael Curtiz)
(12:15 PM) The Power (1968/108m/Byron Haskin)
(2:15 PM) Hot Millions (1968/107m/Eric Till)
(4:15 PM) Edison, The Man (1940/107m/Clarence Brown)
(6:15 PM) So Goes My Love (1946/88m/Frank Ryan)
(8:00 PM) Devil’s Playground (1937/73m/Erle C. Kenton)
(9:30 PM) Journey Into Fear (1942/68m/Norman Foster)
(11:00 PM) The Fugitive (100m/John Ford)
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
(1:00 AM) Flying Down To Rio (1933/89m/Thornton Freeland)
(2:45 AM) The Trail of ‘98 (1928/88m/Clarence Brown)
(4:15 AM) Madame Du Barry (1934/79m/William Dieterle)
(6:00 AM) Wives Under Suspicion (1938/69m/James Whale)
(7:15 AM) An Innocent Affair (1948/87m/Lloyd Bacon)
(8:45 AM) Dry Summer (1964/92m/Metin Erksan)
(10:30 AM) The Man Who Cheated Himself (1950/82m/Felix E. Feist)
(12:00 PM) The King (1930/20m/James W. Horne)
(12:30 PM) La Chienne (1931/95m/Jean Renoir)
(2:15 PM) Le Coup du berger (1956/28m/Jacques Rivette)
(3:00 PM) Scarlet Street (1945/102m/Fritz Lang)
(4:45 PM) The Prowler (1951/93m/Joseph Losey)
(6:30 PM) The Pitfall (1948/86m/Andre De Toth)
(8:00 PM) The Glass Bottom Boat (1966/110m/Frank Tashlin)
(10:00 PM) Sunday In New York (1963/105m/Peter Tewksbury)
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
(12:00 AM) The Mating Game (1959/96m/George Marshall)
(2:00 AM) Looking For Love (1964/83m/Don Weis)
(3:30 AM) Viva Las Vegas (1964/85m/George Sidney)
(5:00 AM) Dangerous When Wet (1953/95m/Charles Walters)
(6:45 AM) Westward Passage (1932/73m/Robert Milton)
(8:15 AM) 21 Days (1940/75m/Basil Dean)
(9:45 AM) That Hamilton Woman (1941/126m/Alexander Korda)
(12:00 PM) Pride and Prejudice (1940/118m/Robert Z. Leonard)
(2:15 PM) The Divorce of Lady X (1938/91m/Tim Whelan)
(4:00 PM) Wuthering Heights (1939/104m/William Wyler)
(6:00 PM) The Entertainer (1960/104m/Tony Richardson)
(8:00 PM) Cool Hand Luke (1967/127m/Stuart Rosenberg)
(10:15 PM) Harper (1966/121m/Jack Smight)
Thursday, May 23, 2019
(12:30 AM) Paris Blues (1961/99m/Martin Ritt)
(2:15 AM) The Prize (1963/135m/Mark Robson)
(4:45 AM) Lady L (1965/108m/Peter Ustinov)
(6:45 AM) The Sky’s The Limit (1943/90m/Edward H. Griffith)
(8:30 AM) Berlin Express (1948/86m/Jacques Tourneur)
(10:30 AM) The Boy With Green Hair (1948/82m/Joseph Losey)
(12:00 PM) Born To Be Bad (1950/90m/Nicholas Ray)
(1:45 PM) Her Twelve Men (1954/91m/Robert Z. Leonard)
(3:30 PM) Bad Day at Black Rock (1955/81m/John Sturges)
(5:00 PM) God's Little Acre (1958/118m/Anthony Mann)
(7:15 PM) Screen Directors Playhouse: Lincoln's Doctor's Dog (1955/26m/?)
(8:00 PM) Hope and Glory (1987/112m/John Boorman)
(10:15 PM) The End of the Affair (1955/106m/Edward Dmytryk)
Friday, May 24, 2019
(12:15 AM) Journey For Margaret (1942/81m/Major W. S. Van Dyke II)
(1:45 AM) Tonight and Every Night (1945/92m/Victor Saville)
(3:30 AM) The Lion Has Wings (1939/76m/Michael Powell)
(5:00 AM) For The Common Defense! (1942/21m/Allan Kenward)
(5:30 AM) Main Street on the March! (1941/19m/Edward L. Cahn)
(6:00 AM) Desperate Search (1953/71m/Joseph Lewis)
(7:15 AM) Pursuit (1935/61m/Edwin L. Marin)
(8:30 AM) The Searchers (1956/119m/John Ford)
(10:30 AM) A Cry in the Night (1956/75m/Frank Tuttle)
(12:00 PM) Ransom! (1956/102m/Alex Segal)
(1:45 PM) Night Nurse (1931/72m/William A. Wellman)
(3:00 PM) Shadow On The Wall (1950/84m/Patrick Jackson)
(4:30 PM) The Night of the Hunter (1955/93m/Charles Laughton)
(6:15 PM) The Nanny (1965/93m/Seth Holt)
(8:00 PM) The Little Foxes (1941/116m/William Wyler)
(10:15 PM) Toys In The Attic (1963/91m/George Roy Hill)
Saturday, May 25, 2019
(12:00 AM) Watch On The Rhine (1943/112m/Herman Shumlin)
(2:00 AM) Santa Claus (1959/95m/Rene Cardona)
(4:00 AM) Santa Claus Conquers The Martians (1964/81m/Nicholas Webster)
(5:30 AM) MGM Parade Show #22 (1955/26m/?)
(6:00 AM) Desperate Journey (1942/108m/Raoul Walsh)
(8:00 AM) MGM CARTOONS: The Hound and the Rabbit (1937/8m/Hugh Harman)
(8:10 AM) Headpin Hints (1955/8m/William Deeke)
(8:20 AM) White Peril (1956/8m/Don Horter)
(8:29 AM) Pirates of the Prairie (1942/58m/Howard Bretherton)
(9:30 AM) The Lost City of the Jungle: Death Flood (1946/?/?)
(10:00 AM) POPEYE: Football Toucher Downer (1940/5m/Dave Fleischer)
(10:08 AM) The Falcon and the Co-Eds (1944/68m/William Clemens)
(11:30 AM) The Rounder (1930/20m/J.C. Nugent)
(12:00 PM) Black Fury (1935/94m/Michael Curtiz)
(1:45 PM) King Solomon's Mines (1950/103m/Compton Bennett)
(3:45 PM) Inherit the Wind (1960/128m/Stanley Kramer)
(6:00 PM) The Three Musketeers (1973/107m/Richard Lester)
(8:00 PM) Pather Panchali (1958/126m/Satyajit Ray)
(10:15 PM) Devi (1960/93m/Satyajit Ray)
Sunday, May 26, 2019
(12:00 AM) Dead Reckoning (1947/100m/John Cromwell)
(2:00 AM) The Great White Hope (1970/103m/Martin Ritt)
(4:00 AM) Jim Thorpe: All American (1951/105m/Michael Curtiz)
(6:00 AM) The Barretts of Wimpole Street (1934/110m/Sidney Franklin)
(8:00 AM) Old Acquaintance (1943/110m/Vincent Sherman)
(10:00 AM) Dead Reckoning (1947/100m/John Cromwell)
(12:00 PM) Flight Command (1940/116m/Frank Borzage)
(2:15 PM) The Horse’s Mouth (1958/95m/Ronald Neame)
(4:00 PM) High Society (1956/112m/Charles Walters)
(6:00 PM) Sabrina (1954/114m/Billy Wilder)
(8:00 PM) The Pink Panther (1964/115m/Blake Edwards)
(10:15 PM) Jewel Robbery (1932/68m/William Dieterle)
Monday, May 27, 2019
(12:00 AM) A Bird’s A Bird (1915/13m/?)
(12:00 AM) Gussle’s Day of Rest (1915/22m/F. Richard Jones)
(12:00 AM) Dirty Work In A Laundry (1915/18m/?)
(12:00 AM) A Lover’s Lost Control (1915/22m/Charles Avery)
(12:00 AM) Dizzy Heights and Daring Hearts (1915/21m/Walter Wright)
(12:00 AM) Do-Re-Mi-Boom! (1915/12m/Walter Wright)
(2:00 AM) Pale Flower (1964/96m/Masahiro Shinoda)
(3:45 AM) Double Suicide (1969/106m/Masahiro Shinoda)
(6:00 AM) From Here To Eternity (1953/118m/Fred Zinnemann)
(8:30 AM) King Rat (1965/135m/Bryan Forbes)
(11:00 AM) The Young Lions (1958/167m/Edward Dmytryk)
(2:00 PM) The Red Badge of Courage (1951/69m/John Huston)
(3:15 PM) Friendly Persuasion (1956/138m/William Wyler)
(5:45 PM) Glory (1989/122m/Edward Zwick)
(8:00 PM) Men In War (1957/98m/Anthony Mann)
(10:00 PM) The Steel Helmet (1951/84m/Samuel Fuller)
(11:45 PM) The Big Parade (1925/151m/King Vidor)
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
(2:30 AM) The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957/162m/David Lean)
(5:15 AM) Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress (1944/40m/Lt. Col. William Wyler)
(6:00 AM) Invitation To The Dance (1956/93m/Gene Kelly)
(7:45 AM) It’s A Big Country (1952/89m/Richard Thorpe)
(9:30 AM) The Wonderful World Of The Brothers Grimm (1962/136m/Henry Levin)
(12:00 PM) Quartet (1948/120m/Ken Annakin)
(2:15 PM) Trio (1950/92m/Ken Annakin)
(4:00 PM) Encore (1951/89m/Harold French)
(5:45 PM) O. Henry's Full House (1952/118m/Dir: Henry Koster)
(8:00 PM) The Owl and the Pussycat (1970/97m/Herbert Ross)
9:45 PM) The Goodbye Girl (1977/111m/Herbert Ross)
(11:45 PM) Tootsie (1982/116m/Sydney Pollack)
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
(2:00 AM) VictoVictoria (1982/134m/Blake Edwards)
(4:30 AM) Just the Way You Are (1984/95m/Edouard Molinaro)
(6:15 AM) Twice Blessed (1945/76m/Harry Beaumont)
(8:00 AM) The Old Maid (1939/95m/Edmund Goulding)
(10:00 AM) Child of Divorce (1947/62m/Richard O. Fleischer)
(11:15 AM) Deep Valley (1947/106m/Jean Negulesco)
(1:15 PM) Seven Sweethearts (1942/98m/Frank Borzage)
(3:00 PM) On The Loose (1951/74m/Charles Lederer)
(4:30 PM) Cynthia (1947/98m/Robert Z. Leonard)
(6:00 PM) Rebel Without a Cause (1955/111m/Nicholas Ray)
(8:00 PM) The Sting (1973/129m/George Roy Hill)
(10:15 PM) The Verdict (1982/129m/Sidney Lumet)
Thursday, May 30, 2019
(12:00 AM) Slap Shot (1977/122m/George Roy Hill)
(2:15 AM) The Mackintosh Man (1973/99m/John Huston)
(4:45 AM) Buffalo Bill and the Indians, or Sitting Bull's History Lesson (1976/123m/Robert Altman)
(7:00 AM) The Big Sleep (1946/114m/Howard Hawks)
(9:00 AM) Rio Bravo (1959/141m/Howard Hawks)
(11:30 AM) Monkey Business (1952/97m/Howard Hawks)
(1:30 PM) Only Angels Have Wings (1939/121m/Howard Hawks)
(3:45 PM) To Have and Have Not (1944/100m/Howard Hawks)
(5:45 PM) The Outlaw (1943/116m/Howard Hughes)
(8:00 PM) The Best Years of Our Lives (1946/170m/William Wyler)
(11:00 PM) Hail The Conquering Hero (1944/101m/Preston Sturges)
Friday, May 31, 2019
(1:00 AM) Till The End Of Time (1946/105m/Edward Dmytryk)
(3:00 AM) Pride of the Marines (1945/120m/Delmer Daves)
(5:15 AM) The Enchanted Cottage (1945/92m/John Cromwell)
(7:00 AM) The Most Dangerous Game (1932/63m/Ernest B. Schoedsack)
(8:30 AM) Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1932/96m/Rouben Mamoulian)
(10:15 AM) The Vampire Bat (1933/63m/Frank Strayer)
(11:30 AM) Mark of the Vampire (1935/60m/Tod Browning)
(12:45 PM) Mad Love (1935/68m/Karl Freund)
(2:00 PM) The Devil-Doll (1936/78m/Tod Browning)
(3:30 PM) The Walking Dead (1936/65m/Michael Curtiz)
(4:45 PM) The Return of Doctor X (1939/62m/Vincent Sherman)
(6:00 PM) The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939/117m/William Dieterle)
(8:00 PM) Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977/135m/Steven Spielberg)
(10:30 PM) The Green Room (1978/91m/François Truffaut)
submitted by tombstoneshadows28 to movies [link] [comments]


2018.07.17 01:46 Chtorrr cat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4]
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[7]
Cats have a high breeding rate.[8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[12]
Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[19][20]
As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[22]
Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[25]
The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[26][27] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16]
The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[35]
All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[37][38] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[29][37]
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[40]
Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[29]
Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others.[47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.
An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[51][52]
A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib,[55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[59]
A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.
While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[41]
Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average.
Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[64] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[65]
Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]
Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]
Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[75]
Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[82]
Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.[86]
Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]
Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]
In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin).[93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.[94]
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]
Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]
Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.
Senses Main article: Cat senses
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47
File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]
Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]
Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]
Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]
Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]
Sociability
Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.[146]
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]
Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.[151]
Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]
Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.)[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]
Grooming
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]
Hunting and feeding
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153
Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]
Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.
The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]
Reproduction See also: Kitten
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]
After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]
A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]
The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.[192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]
Ecology Habitats
A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]
As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[42]
Feral cats Main article: Feral cat
Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]
Impact on prey species
Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]
In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]
Impact on birds
A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats
Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]
Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.
Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]
Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]
History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]
In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]
Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223
Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]
Superstitions and cat burning
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]
"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]
According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]
See also
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2018.06.25 09:43 finnagains Liberation of Dalits: Key to Indian Workers Revolution - Ants Among Elephants - For a Leninist Party to Fight Caste Oppression!

https://archive.li/1w5y8
Workers Vanguard No. 1132 20 April 2018
Liberation of Dalits: Key to Indian Workers Revolution
Ants Among Elephants
For a Leninist Party to Fight Caste Oppression!
A Review
In modern India, with its gleaming IT centers and manufacturing hubs, there are widespread illusions that untouchability is a thing of the past. Nothing could be further from the truth. Untouchability is at the core of the caste system, which has been perpetuated and entrenched within every sphere of Indian capitalist society. Sujatha Gidla’s 2017 book, Ants Among Elephants: An Untouchable Family and the Making of Modern India, shatters many of the myths that serve to make untouchability invisible. Her book is a sharply drawn picture of caste oppression and of her family’s unending struggles against it. It is a compelling read and has been widely acclaimed by reviewers.
Untouchability is not simply a condition of poverty that can be overcome by education and social mobility. As Gidla matter-of-factly states: “I was born into a lower-middle-class family. My parents were college lecturers. I was born an untouchable.” She uses the word “untouchable” rather than “Dalit” because it emphasizes the reality of what it means to be part of that population. Untouchability was formally abolished by the constitution of India, which gained its independence from Britain in 1947, and since that time much has changed in the country. But little has changed for the vast majority of India’s 220 million Dalits, for whom freedom from the yoke of caste oppression is yet to come.
Ants Among Elephants is both a family memoir and a political history of the author’s uncle, K.G. Satyamurthy (1931-2012), who became a famous leader of a Maoist guerrilla group. As such, the book shines a harsh spotlight on the atrocious record of India’s Stalinist parties on the question of untouchability. The Communist Party of India (CPI) and its offshoot the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI[M]) reject the fight for proletarian independence, and thus the fight for socialist revolution. Instead, they subordinate the interests of the oppressed and exploited masses to an alliance with the national bourgeoisie. From its inception, the CPI has acted as an appendage of the Congress Party, which has always been permeated with brahminical (high-caste) Hindu nationalism. Both the CPI and CPI(M) have utterly refused to fight against caste oppression, falsely counterposing such a fight to the class struggle. This is the opposite of Leninism. We stand on the tradition of Bolshevik leader V.I. Lenin, who insisted that the revolutionary workers party must champion the cause of all the oppressed in society, acting as the “tribune of the people.”
Untouchability is a form of special oppression that is not simply reducible to class exploitation, though it overlaps with it. A classic example of special oppression is the subjugation of women, which is a key prop of capitalist rule; a working-class woman, for example, bears the double burden of her oppression as a woman and as a worker. India is permeated with myriad forms of oppression, including those based on religion, language, ethnicity and nationality. In heavily Muslim Kashmir, which is divided between India and Pakistan, the Indian army this month gunned down twelve people in one day.
For Marxists, addressing the oppression of Dalits is a matter of strategic importance. Without a program for the liberation of Dalits, there will be no socialist revolution in India. Dalits are a central component of the working class. To date, there is no history or tradition of genuine Leninism as applied to caste oppression. As part of the struggle to forge a genuinely Leninist party in India, we Marxists of the International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist) are committed to the fight to end the caste system and for the liberation of Dalits.
The Indignities of Caste Oppression
The age-old caste system is historically rooted in India’s rural village economy. The wealthy upper castes dominate the lower castes and the countless subcastes, each one bowing their heads to those above and grinding the faces of those below. But none of these caste divisions is as fundamental, or as envenomed, as the chasm between caste and outcaste. A special place in hell is reserved for “untouchables,” who are forcibly segregated, socially and often physically, beneath all castes. As Gidla writes:
“The untouchables, whose special role—whose hereditary duty—is to labor in the fields of others or to do other work that Hindu society considers filthy, are not allowed to live in the village at all. They must live outside the boundaries of the village proper. They are not allowed to enter temples. Not allowed to come near sources of drinking water used by other castes. Not allowed to eat sitting next to a caste Hindu or to use the same utensils. There are thousands of other such restrictions and indignities that vary from place to place. Every day in an Indian newspaper you can read of an untouchable beaten or killed for wearing sandals, for riding a bicycle.”
In Gujarat last year, a Dalit man was thrashed by upper-caste thugs for “sporting a moustache.” In late March, a Dalit youth was bludgeoned to death for owning and riding a horse.
Gidla’s great-grandparents, tribal forest dwellers, were born in the late 1880s. They were not Hindus but worshipped their own deities. The family was driven out of its dwellings by the British colonial rulers in order to clear the forests for teak production. Her forebears worked an unused area of land and grew crops, only to be forced to pay revenue to the hated zamindar (landowner), who collected taxes on behalf of the British. The family was driven into debt and forced to surrender its land to the zamindar, and they became landless laborers. The enslavement of tribal people (the adivasi) continues to exist to this day.
Gidla’s family converted to Christianity and Sujatha, the author, grew up in a Dalit slum in what was then part of the state of Andhra Pradesh, where being Christian is synonymous with being “untouchable.” She “knew no Christian who did not turn servile in the presence of a Hindu” and “knew no Hindu who did not look right through a Christian man standing in front of him as if he did not exist.” It was only at the age of 15 that Gidla discovered, to her great shock, that there are Christian Brahmins—the Nambudiripad caste, which exists mainly in Kerala.
So entrenched is the caste system in the Indian subcontinent that it is practiced by virtually all religious groups in the region, including Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and Buddhists. India’s Muslims are in their vast majority regarded as “untouchable” and targeted for communal violence. This month, protests of outrage erupted over the torture, rape and murder of an eight-year-old girl, Asifa, from a nomadic Muslim family—a depraved and calculated act of terror by Hindu chauvinists in Kashmir. In Bangladesh, outcastes include the Rohingya, many of whom have been massacred in Myanmar. Pakistan’s impoverished Christians, who face Muslim-chauvinist terror, including for “blasphemy,” are also overwhelmingly deemed outcastes. Oppression based on caste is rife in Nepal as well as in Sri Lanka, where it is practiced by both Tamils and Sinhalese. Gidla, who lives in New York and works as a conductor in the subway system, points out that caste prejudice is rampant among Indians living in the U.S.
Gidla’s grandparents were allowed to attend a school run by Christian missionaries. Education enabled them—and their children—to rise above the unspeakable poverty that afflicts the vast majority of Dalits. But the family could not escape the burden of their untouchability. The story of the author’s mother, Manjula, a central character in the book, gives a sense of the oppression that Dalit women face: blatant caste and sex discrimination. Manjula and the other women in the family had to clean, cook and care for the extended family. Her older brother chose Manjula’s husband, who beat her to appease his own mother. Overcoming these immense obstacles, Manjula acquired a postgraduate degree.
Gidla’s family lived in the city and was thus spared the most heinous violence that is intrinsic to the caste system in the villages. Women are particularly targeted for sadistic crimes by upper-caste men who use rape as a means to humiliate both the woman and her caste. At the same time, inter-caste relationships are deadly dangerous. In February, a 20-year-old woman writhed in agony for hours before dying of poison that her father, assisted by the mother, forced down her throat. The father told the police that this was “just punishment for loving a man outside the community,” i.e., a Dalit.
In the city, one’s caste is less obvious. But by tradition everyone has the right to know, and if you lie, countless clues would give your caste away. In the universities, Dalit students are entering citadels of brahminism. In 2016 Rohith Vemula, a Dalit student at Hyderabad Central University, was hounded to death in a witchhunt spearheaded by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Hindu-chauvinist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government. Vemula’s suicide note said: “My birth is my fatal accident.” This February in Uttar Pradesh, a Dalit university student, Dileep Saroj, was beaten to death for having accidentally touched a caste Hindu. As Gidla put it: “Your life is your caste, your caste is your life.”
On average, every 15 minutes a crime is committed against Dalits, who have been facing increasing attacks since the BJP came to power in 2014. On April 2, Dalits staged an enormous bandh (shutdown protest) across India against a court ruling that weakens the Prevention of Atrocities Act, which ostensibly facilitates the prosecution of crimes committed against Dalits. Protesters were met with massive repression by the police, who killed at least twelve people, injured dozens and arrested thousands. While the legislation does little to protect Dalits from being murdered and maimed with impunity, the court ruling gives the green light to caste-chauvinist gangs for even more violent attacks. Indeed, upper-caste politicians and spokesmen have long been howling to repeal the law.
Stalinism: A Rotten Tradition on Caste
Sujatha Gidla’s uncle, K.G. Satyamurthy, who is a focus of Ants Among Elephants, was a college student when he was drawn to the Congress-led Quit India campaign against British rule. Quickly disillusioned with Congress, Satyamurthy decided to join the Communist Party of India. In so doing, he accepted the view that “one was supposed to think only in terms of class and not of caste. When the class struggle was won, discrimination based on caste would disappear.” With this rotten line, India’s Stalinist parties have tarnished the banner of communism on the question of caste, as they have on every other question of revolution. The deep caste chauvinism prevalent in society constitutes an enormous obstacle to forging the unity the working class needs in its struggles against capital. The struggle for socialist liberation in India requires the building of a Leninist vanguard party to lead the proletariat in the fight against the oppression of the Dalit masses.
Satyamurthy joined the CPI because—unusually for the Stalinists—the party joined a revolt of the oppressed in Telangana (which was then part of Andhra Pradesh). The Telangana struggle (1946-51) was an insurrection against the monstrous rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Nizam’s rule was reinforced by the British, providing a textbook example of how colonial rule strengthened the caste system. As Gidla writes: “There were systems of servitude in every part of India, but none was as ruthless as the vetti system in Telangana, the heartland of the Nizam’s kingdom of the Deccan.” Under the vetti system, “every untouchable family in the village had to give up their first male child as soon as he learned to talk and walk.” The child would become a slave in the household of the dora, the Nizam’s local agent. Similarly, all the women of the village were the property of the dora. Gidla notes that if the dora “called while they were eating they had to leave the food on their plates and come to his bed.”
The CPI in Andhra Pradesh became involved in the Telangana armed struggle and built a guerrilla army that soon controlled large areas of the countryside. In 1948, the ruling Congress Party under Jawaharlal Nehru dispatched the army to Telangana. The Nizam had initially refused to bring his kingdom into the newly independent state of India, but quickly surrendered his “princely state” to the Indian army, which then turned to its main mission: crushing the Communist-led rebellion. Over the next three years the army massacred untold numbers of Muslims, peasants and tribal people. In the wake of the slaughter, the CPI reverted back to its historic role as an appendage of Congress, which had previously ordered that Communists be hanged from trees. Gidla bitterly notes that the CPI leadership “gave in to Nehru without even demanding amnesty for the ten thousand party members who were rotting in detention camps.”
Satyamurthy was devastated that the CPI abandoned the armed struggle and even more shocked to discover that the turn was sanctioned by Stalin. In 1964, the CPI split into pro-Soviet and pro-China wings. Satyamurthy sided with the pro-China faction that would become the CPI(M), hoping that the “Chinese path” would mean following the example of Mao, who had led a peasant army to victory. But the CPI(M) voted at its first conference to follow the parliamentary road.
When the CPI(M) became part of a capitalist government in West Bengal in 1967, a layer of party cadre split and launched an armed uprising in Naxalbari, becoming known as Naxalites. The split attracted a large portion of CPI(M) members in Andhra Pradesh, including Satyamurthy and many veterans of the Telangana struggle. Both the CPI and CPI(M) drew a blood line against the Naxalites. In the 1970s, the CPI supported their ruthless suppression at the hands of Congress leader Indira Gandhi. In August 1971, CPI(M) cadre joined with Congress goons in a massacre of Naxalite suspects and sympathizers in Calcutta.
And when it came to crimes against Dalits, the CPI(M) during its decades in power in West Bengal mirrored the Indian ruling class. In 1979, the CPI(M)-led government massacred hundreds of Dalit Hindu refugees from Bangladesh who were living on the island of Marichjhapi. In 2007, in Nandigram, West Bengal, CPI(M) goons joined cops in a massacre of perhaps 100 people who were protesting against land-grabbing for capitalist enterprise.
In 1980, Satyamurthy cofounded the People’s War Group (PWG) in Andhra Pradesh with Kondapalli Seetharamayya, a caste Hindu who was a veteran of the CPI and the Telangana uprising. The PWG, which became one of the best-known Naxalite groups—and the Naxalites in general—won significant support among Dalits, for whom the armed guerrillas offered a much-needed measure of protection against the brutal violence of the upper-caste landlords and the state. However, the Maoist program offers no way forward. The Maoists have no political program other than to look for “progressive” bourgeois allies, invariably sacrificing the interests of the poorest peasants to unity with “broader forces.” According to the Naxalites, Dalits must unite with the “intermediate” castes in a struggle against the “feudal” large landowners. In reality, the “intermediate” castes are often bitterly and violently hostile to Dalits and tribal people owning land.
While the Naxalites traditionally drew their support largely from Dalits (and today mainly from among the adivasi people), they have refused to politically address the question of untouchability. The issue exploded inside the PWG in 1984 when young Dalit party members complained to Satyamurthy of caste-chauvinist practices in the functioning of the party: comrades of the barber caste were assigned to shave other comrades; those from the washer caste to wash clothes; Dalit members were told to sweep floors and clean lavatories.
Satyamurthy, who had personally experienced caste chauvinism from his comrades, scheduled a Central Committee meeting to discuss the issue. The party leadership responded by having him “expelled on the spot for ‘conspiring to divide the party’,” as Gidla reports. In refusing to even discuss caste prejudice in its own ranks, the Maoist PWG was true to its political roots in the CPI.
M.N. Roy’s Distortions of Leninism
Ants Among Elephants brilliantly exposes the political bankruptcy of Indian would-be Marxists on the question of caste oppression. The task that genuine communists face is to outline a Bolshevik perspective for India. Marxists must address the daily oppression of Dalits and adivasi people up to and after the victory of socialist revolution. The ICL looks to the lessons of the first four congresses of the Communist International (CI). We seek to forge a party in India armed with a program of permanent revolution, the program that laid the basis for victory in the Bolshevik-led 1917 October Revolution. Under the leadership of Lenin and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks established the dictatorship of the proletariat with the support of the poorer peasantry and downtrodden ethnic minorities. The Soviet government issued far-reaching decrees, granting the right of self-determination to the oppressed nations, full legal equality for women and land to landless peasants.
In 1920, Lenin drafted a set of theses on the agrarian question, which could have been written for India today. As opposed to the Maoist strategy of peasant war divorced from the struggles of the working class, the theses stipulate that “there is no salvation for the working masses of the countryside except in alliance with the Communist proletariat.” The theses continued: “The industrial workers cannot accomplish their epoch-making mission of emancipating mankind from the yoke of capital and from wars if they confine themselves to their narrow craft, or trade interests, and smugly restrict themselves to attaining an improvement in their own conditions.”
The founder of the Communist Party in India, M.N. Roy, brought a distortion of Leninism to the subcontinent and put the nascent movement on a course of capitulation to bourgeois nationalism. As early as 1922, Roy drafted a manifesto for the bourgeois-nationalist Congress Party urging the organization to put itself at the head of the working-class and peasant masses. Under Roy’s guidance, the CPI set out from its founding in December 1925 to build a Peasants’ and Workers’ Party in Bengal. Rather than fighting to build a proletarian party that could lead the peasant masses, Roy sought to build a two-class party (i.e., a bourgeois party) where the interests of the working class would necessarily be subordinated to those of the petty-bourgeois peasantry.
Roy’s political program was contrary to the perspective outlined at the 1920 Second Congress of the CI, which Roy himself attended. Lenin insisted: “The Communist International must enter into a temporary alliance with bourgeois democracy in the colonial and backward countries, but should not merge with it, and should under all circumstances uphold the independence of the proletarian movement even if it is in its most embryonic form” (“Preliminary Draft Theses on the National and the Colonial Questions,” 1920).
When the CI came under the bureaucratic leadership of the nationalist Stalinist bureaucracy, Roy acted as Stalin’s representative in China in 1927. On Stalin’s instructions, the Chinese Communist Party remained within the bourgeois-nationalist Guomindang even as its leader, Chiang Kai-shek, staged a coup in April 1927 and disarmed and massacred tens of thousands of Communist-led workers in Shanghai (see “M.N. Roy, Nationalist Menshevik,” Spartacist [English-language edition] No. 62, Spring 2011). The slaughter in China was the bitter fruit of the Stalinist program of subordinating the proletariat to the bourgeois nationalists. Two decades later, the Indian Stalinists reaped the reward for their support to the Indian nationalists in the bloody suppression of the Communist-led peasant uprising in Telangana at the hands of Nehru and his home minister, Vallabhbhai Patel, known as the “Iron Man of India.”
The CPI’s capitulation to brahminical chauvinism precluded their fighting against the oppression of Dalits. This was evident in the late 1920s when Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the historic Dalit leader, led mass protests against untouchability in the state of Maharashtra. During that period, the Communists had acquired significant support among the combative proletariat in the Bombay textile mills, where Dalit workers were forbidden from working in the higher-paying weaving department and forced to drink water from separate pitchers. A Leninist party would have fought tooth and nail to win all workers to demand an end to untouchability in the workplace and for equal pay for all.
But CPI leaders would not carry out such a fight and did not even mobilize for the protests against untouchability. An exasperated Ambedkar disdained the CPI leaders as “mostly a bunch of Brahmin boys.” He concluded: “The Russians made a great mistake to entrust the Communist movement in India to them. Either the Russians didn’t want Communism in India—they wanted only drummer boys—or they didn’t understand” (quoted in Selig S. Harrison, India: The Most Dangerous Decades [1960]).
Amid the growing drive for Indian independence from British rule, the CPI grotesquely dismissed the fight against caste oppression as a diversion from the “anti-imperialist” struggle. Moreover, in the wretched tradition of Roy, the CPI ceded the leadership of the anti-colonial struggle to the bourgeois nationalists led by Mohandas (“Mahatma”) Gandhi. By turning a deaf ear to the struggle against untouchability, the CPI drove many Dalits into Ambedkar’s dead-end framework of reforming capitalism.
In 1931, the British masters of “divide and rule” offered Ambedkar a separate electorate for the “depressed classes,” as they had granted to Muslims. This would have allowed Dalits, who are geographically dispersed, to form a single electoral bloc. Astutely recognizing that Ambedkar’s followers might unite with Muslims to form a counterweight to Congress, Gandhi declared a “fast to the death” against the British proposal. In opposition to Ambedkar, Gandhi proclaimed himself to be the leader of those he patronizingly labeled “harijans” (children of God). Though he campaigned against certain aspects of untouchability—demanding, for example, temple entry—Gandhi was a staunch supporter of the brahminical caste system.
For his part, Ambedkar fostered illusions that the British could be used as a bulwark against the upper-caste Indian nationalists. With the outbreak of World War II, he supported the imperialists and joined the Viceroy’s Executive Council. In this, he was not unique. Gandhi, too, supported the British at the beginning of the war, though he could not win the Congress leadership to his position. It was not until 1942 that Congress launched the Quit India movement. As for the CPI, the Indian Stalinists also supported the “democratic” imperialists from the time of Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 onward, betraying the interests of the colonial masses.
Following independence, the ruling Congress Party agreed to reserve seats in Parliament for “scheduled” tribes and castes and co-opted Ambedkar to draft the new constitution. In addition to banning untouchability, the written document promised many freedoms, including for women, but they remained largely a dead letter. Ambedkar himself later noted: “The same old tyranny, the same old oppression, the same old discrimination which existed before, exists now, and perhaps in a worse form.”
For a Trotskyist Perspective
India’s transition from preindustrial society did not lead to the dissolution of caste relations. The British colonial rulers—backed by the large landowners and nascent local bourgeoisie—preserved, manipulated and reinforced rural backwardness and the caste system. The post-independence period has shown that the Indian capitalist rulers are incapable of solving basic democratic questions. The land reforms introduced by Congress largely restricted redistribution to those within the landowning castes.
To this day, Dalits who manage to buy land are often attacked by mobs, and the legal transfer of ownership is routinely bogged down in wrangles for years. The proportion of landless people in rural India has increased from 28 percent of the rural population in 1951 to nearly 55 percent in 2011. And it continues to rise.
Indian capital is dependent on imperialist finance capital. Almost 70 percent of the population lives in small villages. However, the rural areas are no longer the main source of capital accumulation for the dominant rural castes, who are increasingly investing in industry. This fact underlines that the fight to expropriate the landlords—and provide land to the landless masses—is inseparable from the fight to expropriate the bourgeoisie as a class.
Side by side with its rural backwardness, India is now the fifth-largest manufacturer in the world. The Indian proletariat is small relative to the rural population, but it has the social power to lead the peasant masses and all the oppressed in a fight to overthrow capitalist exploitation. To exercise that power will take a struggle to overcome the insidious caste divisions in the working class.
As Leninists, the ICL fights to build a vanguard party that imbues the proletariat with the understanding that the struggle against Dalit oppression is in the interest of the entire working class of India. A case in point would be to mobilize to free 13 imprisoned union leaders from the Maruti Suzuki plant at Gurgaon-Manesar near Delhi. In 2012, a supervisor attacked a Dalit worker with casteist slurs. The union defended the worker. But the company, which has long sought to crush the union, hired thugs who provoked an altercation, after which the union leaders were outrageously framed up on a murder charge. Last year, the 13 unionists were sentenced to life in prison (see “India: Free Maruti Suzuki Union Leaders!” WV No. 1112, 19 May 2017).
The workers movement should also take a stand in defense of the Bhim Army, a Dalit rights organization that has been subjected to fierce repression by the BJP government in Uttar Pradesh. The Bhim Army’s leader, Chandrashekhar Azad, is being held in prison under the draconian National Security Act, despite having been acquitted of all the (bogus) charges against him. The unions and organizations of the oppressed must demand: Free Chandrashekhar Azad now!
Sujatha Gidla’s Ants Among Elephants powerfully illustrates the central role caste oppression plays in Indian society. The liberation of the Dalit masses requires the forging of a revolutionary workers party dedicated to fighting all forms of oppression. In turn, Marxists committed to building such a party must fight to overcome the shameful legacy of Stalinism by planting the banner of the Trotskyist program of permanent revolution. This program is thoroughly internationalist, aiming for proletarian revolution not only in India and the rest of South Asia but also in the imperialist centers of North America, West Europe and Japan. The true Leninist party that we aim to build will be composed in its majority of Dalits as well as oppressed minorities. Winning the trust of the Dalits and adivasi people will require special demands and forms of organization. A Leninist-Trotskyist party in India, section of a reforged Fourth International, will open up the possibility of a way out of the endless cycles of brutal oppression, injustice and poverty.
http://www.icl-fi.org/english/wv/1132/ants_among_elephants.html
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2018.06.23 23:15 finnagains Liberation of Dalits: Key to Indian Workers Revolution - Ants Among Elephants - For a Leninist Party to Fight Caste Oppression!

https://archive.li/1w5y8
Workers Vanguard No. 1132 20 April 2018
Liberation of Dalits: Key to Indian Workers Revolution
Ants Among Elephants
For a Leninist Party to Fight Caste Oppression!
A Review
In modern India, with its gleaming IT centers and manufacturing hubs, there are widespread illusions that untouchability is a thing of the past. Nothing could be further from the truth. Untouchability is at the core of the caste system, which has been perpetuated and entrenched within every sphere of Indian capitalist society. Sujatha Gidla’s 2017 book, Ants Among Elephants: An Untouchable Family and the Making of Modern India, shatters many of the myths that serve to make untouchability invisible. Her book is a sharply drawn picture of caste oppression and of her family’s unending struggles against it. It is a compelling read and has been widely acclaimed by reviewers.
Untouchability is not simply a condition of poverty that can be overcome by education and social mobility. As Gidla matter-of-factly states: “I was born into a lower-middle-class family. My parents were college lecturers. I was born an untouchable.” She uses the word “untouchable” rather than “Dalit” because it emphasizes the reality of what it means to be part of that population. Untouchability was formally abolished by the constitution of India, which gained its independence from Britain in 1947, and since that time much has changed in the country. But little has changed for the vast majority of India’s 220 million Dalits, for whom freedom from the yoke of caste oppression is yet to come.
Ants Among Elephants is both a family memoir and a political history of the author’s uncle, K.G. Satyamurthy (1931-2012), who became a famous leader of a Maoist guerrilla group. As such, the book shines a harsh spotlight on the atrocious record of India’s Stalinist parties on the question of untouchability. The Communist Party of India (CPI) and its offshoot the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI[M]) reject the fight for proletarian independence, and thus the fight for socialist revolution. Instead, they subordinate the interests of the oppressed and exploited masses to an alliance with the national bourgeoisie. From its inception, the CPI has acted as an appendage of the Congress Party, which has always been permeated with brahminical (high-caste) Hindu nationalism. Both the CPI and CPI(M) have utterly refused to fight against caste oppression, falsely counterposing such a fight to the class struggle. This is the opposite of Leninism. We stand on the tradition of Bolshevik leader V.I. Lenin, who insisted that the revolutionary workers party must champion the cause of all the oppressed in society, acting as the “tribune of the people.”
Untouchability is a form of special oppression that is not simply reducible to class exploitation, though it overlaps with it. A classic example of special oppression is the subjugation of women, which is a key prop of capitalist rule; a working-class woman, for example, bears the double burden of her oppression as a woman and as a worker. India is permeated with myriad forms of oppression, including those based on religion, language, ethnicity and nationality. In heavily Muslim Kashmir, which is divided between India and Pakistan, the Indian army this month gunned down twelve people in one day.
For Marxists, addressing the oppression of Dalits is a matter of strategic importance. Without a program for the liberation of Dalits, there will be no socialist revolution in India. Dalits are a central component of the working class. To date, there is no history or tradition of genuine Leninism as applied to caste oppression. As part of the struggle to forge a genuinely Leninist party in India, we Marxists of the International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist) are committed to the fight to end the caste system and for the liberation of Dalits.
The Indignities of Caste Oppression
The age-old caste system is historically rooted in India’s rural village economy. The wealthy upper castes dominate the lower castes and the countless subcastes, each one bowing their heads to those above and grinding the faces of those below. But none of these caste divisions is as fundamental, or as envenomed, as the chasm between caste and outcaste. A special place in hell is reserved for “untouchables,” who are forcibly segregated, socially and often physically, beneath all castes. As Gidla writes:
“The untouchables, whose special role—whose hereditary duty—is to labor in the fields of others or to do other work that Hindu society considers filthy, are not allowed to live in the village at all. They must live outside the boundaries of the village proper. They are not allowed to enter temples. Not allowed to come near sources of drinking water used by other castes. Not allowed to eat sitting next to a caste Hindu or to use the same utensils. There are thousands of other such restrictions and indignities that vary from place to place. Every day in an Indian newspaper you can read of an untouchable beaten or killed for wearing sandals, for riding a bicycle.”
In Gujarat last year, a Dalit man was thrashed by upper-caste thugs for “sporting a moustache.” In late March, a Dalit youth was bludgeoned to death for owning and riding a horse.
Gidla’s great-grandparents, tribal forest dwellers, were born in the late 1880s. They were not Hindus but worshipped their own deities. The family was driven out of its dwellings by the British colonial rulers in order to clear the forests for teak production. Her forebears worked an unused area of land and grew crops, only to be forced to pay revenue to the hated zamindar (landowner), who collected taxes on behalf of the British. The family was driven into debt and forced to surrender its land to the zamindar, and they became landless laborers. The enslavement of tribal people (the adivasi) continues to exist to this day.
Gidla’s family converted to Christianity and Sujatha, the author, grew up in a Dalit slum in what was then part of the state of Andhra Pradesh, where being Christian is synonymous with being “untouchable.” She “knew no Christian who did not turn servile in the presence of a Hindu” and “knew no Hindu who did not look right through a Christian man standing in front of him as if he did not exist.” It was only at the age of 15 that Gidla discovered, to her great shock, that there are Christian Brahmins—the Nambudiripad caste, which exists mainly in Kerala.
So entrenched is the caste system in the Indian subcontinent that it is practiced by virtually all religious groups in the region, including Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and Buddhists. India’s Muslims are in their vast majority regarded as “untouchable” and targeted for communal violence. This month, protests of outrage erupted over the torture, rape and murder of an eight-year-old girl, Asifa, from a nomadic Muslim family—a depraved and calculated act of terror by Hindu chauvinists in Kashmir. In Bangladesh, outcastes include the Rohingya, many of whom have been massacred in Myanmar. Pakistan’s impoverished Christians, who face Muslim-chauvinist terror, including for “blasphemy,” are also overwhelmingly deemed outcastes. Oppression based on caste is rife in Nepal as well as in Sri Lanka, where it is practiced by both Tamils and Sinhalese. Gidla, who lives in New York and works as a conductor in the subway system, points out that caste prejudice is rampant among Indians living in the U.S.
Gidla’s grandparents were allowed to attend a school run by Christian missionaries. Education enabled them—and their children—to rise above the unspeakable poverty that afflicts the vast majority of Dalits. But the family could not escape the burden of their untouchability. The story of the author’s mother, Manjula, a central character in the book, gives a sense of the oppression that Dalit women face: blatant caste and sex discrimination. Manjula and the other women in the family had to clean, cook and care for the extended family. Her older brother chose Manjula’s husband, who beat her to appease his own mother. Overcoming these immense obstacles, Manjula acquired a postgraduate degree.
Gidla’s family lived in the city and was thus spared the most heinous violence that is intrinsic to the caste system in the villages. Women are particularly targeted for sadistic crimes by upper-caste men who use rape as a means to humiliate both the woman and her caste. At the same time, inter-caste relationships are deadly dangerous. In February, a 20-year-old woman writhed in agony for hours before dying of poison that her father, assisted by the mother, forced down her throat. The father told the police that this was “just punishment for loving a man outside the community,” i.e., a Dalit.
In the city, one’s caste is less obvious. But by tradition everyone has the right to know, and if you lie, countless clues would give your caste away. In the universities, Dalit students are entering citadels of brahminism. In 2016 Rohith Vemula, a Dalit student at Hyderabad Central University, was hounded to death in a witchhunt spearheaded by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Hindu-chauvinist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government. Vemula’s suicide note said: “My birth is my fatal accident.” This February in Uttar Pradesh, a Dalit university student, Dileep Saroj, was beaten to death for having accidentally touched a caste Hindu. As Gidla put it: “Your life is your caste, your caste is your life.”
On average, every 15 minutes a crime is committed against Dalits, who have been facing increasing attacks since the BJP came to power in 2014. On April 2, Dalits staged an enormous bandh (shutdown protest) across India against a court ruling that weakens the Prevention of Atrocities Act, which ostensibly facilitates the prosecution of crimes committed against Dalits. Protesters were met with massive repression by the police, who killed at least twelve people, injured dozens and arrested thousands. While the legislation does little to protect Dalits from being murdered and maimed with impunity, the court ruling gives the green light to caste-chauvinist gangs for even more violent attacks. Indeed, upper-caste politicians and spokesmen have long been howling to repeal the law.
Stalinism: A Rotten Tradition on Caste
Sujatha Gidla’s uncle, K.G. Satyamurthy, who is a focus of Ants Among Elephants, was a college student when he was drawn to the Congress-led Quit India campaign against British rule. Quickly disillusioned with Congress, Satyamurthy decided to join the Communist Party of India. In so doing, he accepted the view that “one was supposed to think only in terms of class and not of caste. When the class struggle was won, discrimination based on caste would disappear.” With this rotten line, India’s Stalinist parties have tarnished the banner of communism on the question of caste, as they have on every other question of revolution. The deep caste chauvinism prevalent in society constitutes an enormous obstacle to forging the unity the working class needs in its struggles against capital. The struggle for socialist liberation in India requires the building of a Leninist vanguard party to lead the proletariat in the fight against the oppression of the Dalit masses.
Satyamurthy joined the CPI because—unusually for the Stalinists—the party joined a revolt of the oppressed in Telangana (which was then part of Andhra Pradesh). The Telangana struggle (1946-51) was an insurrection against the monstrous rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Nizam’s rule was reinforced by the British, providing a textbook example of how colonial rule strengthened the caste system. As Gidla writes: “There were systems of servitude in every part of India, but none was as ruthless as the vetti system in Telangana, the heartland of the Nizam’s kingdom of the Deccan.” Under the vetti system, “every untouchable family in the village had to give up their first male child as soon as he learned to talk and walk.” The child would become a slave in the household of the dora, the Nizam’s local agent. Similarly, all the women of the village were the property of the dora. Gidla notes that if the dora “called while they were eating they had to leave the food on their plates and come to his bed.”
The CPI in Andhra Pradesh became involved in the Telangana armed struggle and built a guerrilla army that soon controlled large areas of the countryside. In 1948, the ruling Congress Party under Jawaharlal Nehru dispatched the army to Telangana. The Nizam had initially refused to bring his kingdom into the newly independent state of India, but quickly surrendered his “princely state” to the Indian army, which then turned to its main mission: crushing the Communist-led rebellion. Over the next three years the army massacred untold numbers of Muslims, peasants and tribal people. In the wake of the slaughter, the CPI reverted back to its historic role as an appendage of Congress, which had previously ordered that Communists be hanged from trees. Gidla bitterly notes that the CPI leadership “gave in to Nehru without even demanding amnesty for the ten thousand party members who were rotting in detention camps.”
Satyamurthy was devastated that the CPI abandoned the armed struggle and even more shocked to discover that the turn was sanctioned by Stalin. In 1964, the CPI split into pro-Soviet and pro-China wings. Satyamurthy sided with the pro-China faction that would become the CPI(M), hoping that the “Chinese path” would mean following the example of Mao, who had led a peasant army to victory. But the CPI(M) voted at its first conference to follow the parliamentary road.
When the CPI(M) became part of a capitalist government in West Bengal in 1967, a layer of party cadre split and launched an armed uprising in Naxalbari, becoming known as Naxalites. The split attracted a large portion of CPI(M) members in Andhra Pradesh, including Satyamurthy and many veterans of the Telangana struggle. Both the CPI and CPI(M) drew a blood line against the Naxalites. In the 1970s, the CPI supported their ruthless suppression at the hands of Congress leader Indira Gandhi. In August 1971, CPI(M) cadre joined with Congress goons in a massacre of Naxalite suspects and sympathizers in Calcutta.
And when it came to crimes against Dalits, the CPI(M) during its decades in power in West Bengal mirrored the Indian ruling class. In 1979, the CPI(M)-led government massacred hundreds of Dalit Hindu refugees from Bangladesh who were living on the island of Marichjhapi. In 2007, in Nandigram, West Bengal, CPI(M) goons joined cops in a massacre of perhaps 100 people who were protesting against land-grabbing for capitalist enterprise.
In 1980, Satyamurthy cofounded the People’s War Group (PWG) in Andhra Pradesh with Kondapalli Seetharamayya, a caste Hindu who was a veteran of the CPI and the Telangana uprising. The PWG, which became one of the best-known Naxalite groups—and the Naxalites in general—won significant support among Dalits, for whom the armed guerrillas offered a much-needed measure of protection against the brutal violence of the upper-caste landlords and the state. However, the Maoist program offers no way forward. The Maoists have no political program other than to look for “progressive” bourgeois allies, invariably sacrificing the interests of the poorest peasants to unity with “broader forces.” According to the Naxalites, Dalits must unite with the “intermediate” castes in a struggle against the “feudal” large landowners. In reality, the “intermediate” castes are often bitterly and violently hostile to Dalits and tribal people owning land.
While the Naxalites traditionally drew their support largely from Dalits (and today mainly from among the adivasi people), they have refused to politically address the question of untouchability. The issue exploded inside the PWG in 1984 when young Dalit party members complained to Satyamurthy of caste-chauvinist practices in the functioning of the party: comrades of the barber caste were assigned to shave other comrades; those from the washer caste to wash clothes; Dalit members were told to sweep floors and clean lavatories.
Satyamurthy, who had personally experienced caste chauvinism from his comrades, scheduled a Central Committee meeting to discuss the issue. The party leadership responded by having him “expelled on the spot for ‘conspiring to divide the party’,” as Gidla reports. In refusing to even discuss caste prejudice in its own ranks, the Maoist PWG was true to its political roots in the CPI.
M.N. Roy’s Distortions of Leninism
Ants Among Elephants brilliantly exposes the political bankruptcy of Indian would-be Marxists on the question of caste oppression. The task that genuine communists face is to outline a Bolshevik perspective for India. Marxists must address the daily oppression of Dalits and adivasi people up to and after the victory of socialist revolution. The ICL looks to the lessons of the first four congresses of the Communist International (CI). We seek to forge a party in India armed with a program of permanent revolution, the program that laid the basis for victory in the Bolshevik-led 1917 October Revolution. Under the leadership of Lenin and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks established the dictatorship of the proletariat with the support of the poorer peasantry and downtrodden ethnic minorities. The Soviet government issued far-reaching decrees, granting the right of self-determination to the oppressed nations, full legal equality for women and land to landless peasants.
In 1920, Lenin drafted a set of theses on the agrarian question, which could have been written for India today. As opposed to the Maoist strategy of peasant war divorced from the struggles of the working class, the theses stipulate that “there is no salvation for the working masses of the countryside except in alliance with the Communist proletariat.” The theses continued: “The industrial workers cannot accomplish their epoch-making mission of emancipating mankind from the yoke of capital and from wars if they confine themselves to their narrow craft, or trade interests, and smugly restrict themselves to attaining an improvement in their own conditions.”
The founder of the Communist Party in India, M.N. Roy, brought a distortion of Leninism to the subcontinent and put the nascent movement on a course of capitulation to bourgeois nationalism. As early as 1922, Roy drafted a manifesto for the bourgeois-nationalist Congress Party urging the organization to put itself at the head of the working-class and peasant masses. Under Roy’s guidance, the CPI set out from its founding in December 1925 to build a Peasants’ and Workers’ Party in Bengal. Rather than fighting to build a proletarian party that could lead the peasant masses, Roy sought to build a two-class party (i.e., a bourgeois party) where the interests of the working class would necessarily be subordinated to those of the petty-bourgeois peasantry.
Roy’s political program was contrary to the perspective outlined at the 1920 Second Congress of the CI, which Roy himself attended. Lenin insisted: “The Communist International must enter into a temporary alliance with bourgeois democracy in the colonial and backward countries, but should not merge with it, and should under all circumstances uphold the independence of the proletarian movement even if it is in its most embryonic form” (“Preliminary Draft Theses on the National and the Colonial Questions,” 1920).
When the CI came under the bureaucratic leadership of the nationalist Stalinist bureaucracy, Roy acted as Stalin’s representative in China in 1927. On Stalin’s instructions, the Chinese Communist Party remained within the bourgeois-nationalist Guomindang even as its leader, Chiang Kai-shek, staged a coup in April 1927 and disarmed and massacred tens of thousands of Communist-led workers in Shanghai (see “M.N. Roy, Nationalist Menshevik,” Spartacist [English-language edition] No. 62, Spring 2011). The slaughter in China was the bitter fruit of the Stalinist program of subordinating the proletariat to the bourgeois nationalists. Two decades later, the Indian Stalinists reaped the reward for their support to the Indian nationalists in the bloody suppression of the Communist-led peasant uprising in Telangana at the hands of Nehru and his home minister, Vallabhbhai Patel, known as the “Iron Man of India.”
The CPI’s capitulation to brahminical chauvinism precluded their fighting against the oppression of Dalits. This was evident in the late 1920s when Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the historic Dalit leader, led mass protests against untouchability in the state of Maharashtra. During that period, the Communists had acquired significant support among the combative proletariat in the Bombay textile mills, where Dalit workers were forbidden from working in the higher-paying weaving department and forced to drink water from separate pitchers. A Leninist party would have fought tooth and nail to win all workers to demand an end to untouchability in the workplace and for equal pay for all.
But CPI leaders would not carry out such a fight and did not even mobilize for the protests against untouchability. An exasperated Ambedkar disdained the CPI leaders as “mostly a bunch of Brahmin boys.” He concluded: “The Russians made a great mistake to entrust the Communist movement in India to them. Either the Russians didn’t want Communism in India—they wanted only drummer boys—or they didn’t understand” (quoted in Selig S. Harrison, India: The Most Dangerous Decades [1960]).
Amid the growing drive for Indian independence from British rule, the CPI grotesquely dismissed the fight against caste oppression as a diversion from the “anti-imperialist” struggle. Moreover, in the wretched tradition of Roy, the CPI ceded the leadership of the anti-colonial struggle to the bourgeois nationalists led by Mohandas (“Mahatma”) Gandhi. By turning a deaf ear to the struggle against untouchability, the CPI drove many Dalits into Ambedkar’s dead-end framework of reforming capitalism.
In 1931, the British masters of “divide and rule” offered Ambedkar a separate electorate for the “depressed classes,” as they had granted to Muslims. This would have allowed Dalits, who are geographically dispersed, to form a single electoral bloc. Astutely recognizing that Ambedkar’s followers might unite with Muslims to form a counterweight to Congress, Gandhi declared a “fast to the death” against the British proposal. In opposition to Ambedkar, Gandhi proclaimed himself to be the leader of those he patronizingly labeled “harijans” (children of God). Though he campaigned against certain aspects of untouchability—demanding, for example, temple entry—Gandhi was a staunch supporter of the brahminical caste system.
For his part, Ambedkar fostered illusions that the British could be used as a bulwark against the upper-caste Indian nationalists. With the outbreak of World War II, he supported the imperialists and joined the Viceroy’s Executive Council. In this, he was not unique. Gandhi, too, supported the British at the beginning of the war, though he could not win the Congress leadership to his position. It was not until 1942 that Congress launched the Quit India movement. As for the CPI, the Indian Stalinists also supported the “democratic” imperialists from the time of Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 onward, betraying the interests of the colonial masses.
Following independence, the ruling Congress Party agreed to reserve seats in Parliament for “scheduled” tribes and castes and co-opted Ambedkar to draft the new constitution. In addition to banning untouchability, the written document promised many freedoms, including for women, but they remained largely a dead letter. Ambedkar himself later noted: “The same old tyranny, the same old oppression, the same old discrimination which existed before, exists now, and perhaps in a worse form.”
For a Trotskyist Perspective
India’s transition from preindustrial society did not lead to the dissolution of caste relations. The British colonial rulers—backed by the large landowners and nascent local bourgeoisie—preserved, manipulated and reinforced rural backwardness and the caste system. The post-independence period has shown that the Indian capitalist rulers are incapable of solving basic democratic questions. The land reforms introduced by Congress largely restricted redistribution to those within the landowning castes.
To this day, Dalits who manage to buy land are often attacked by mobs, and the legal transfer of ownership is routinely bogged down in wrangles for years. The proportion of landless people in rural India has increased from 28 percent of the rural population in 1951 to nearly 55 percent in 2011. And it continues to rise.
Indian capital is dependent on imperialist finance capital. Almost 70 percent of the population lives in small villages. However, the rural areas are no longer the main source of capital accumulation for the dominant rural castes, who are increasingly investing in industry. This fact underlines that the fight to expropriate the landlords—and provide land to the landless masses—is inseparable from the fight to expropriate the bourgeoisie as a class.
Side by side with its rural backwardness, India is now the fifth-largest manufacturer in the world. The Indian proletariat is small relative to the rural population, but it has the social power to lead the peasant masses and all the oppressed in a fight to overthrow capitalist exploitation. To exercise that power will take a struggle to overcome the insidious caste divisions in the working class.
As Leninists, the ICL fights to build a vanguard party that imbues the proletariat with the understanding that the struggle against Dalit oppression is in the interest of the entire working class of India. A case in point would be to mobilize to free 13 imprisoned union leaders from the Maruti Suzuki plant at Gurgaon-Manesar near Delhi. In 2012, a supervisor attacked a Dalit worker with casteist slurs. The union defended the worker. But the company, which has long sought to crush the union, hired thugs who provoked an altercation, after which the union leaders were outrageously framed up on a murder charge. Last year, the 13 unionists were sentenced to life in prison (see “India: Free Maruti Suzuki Union Leaders!” WV No. 1112, 19 May 2017).
The workers movement should also take a stand in defense of the Bhim Army, a Dalit rights organization that has been subjected to fierce repression by the BJP government in Uttar Pradesh. The Bhim Army’s leader, Chandrashekhar Azad, is being held in prison under the draconian National Security Act, despite having been acquitted of all the (bogus) charges against him. The unions and organizations of the oppressed must demand: Free Chandrashekhar Azad now!
Sujatha Gidla’s Ants Among Elephants powerfully illustrates the central role caste oppression plays in Indian society. The liberation of the Dalit masses requires the forging of a revolutionary workers party dedicated to fighting all forms of oppression. In turn, Marxists committed to building such a party must fight to overcome the shameful legacy of Stalinism by planting the banner of the Trotskyist program of permanent revolution. This program is thoroughly internationalist, aiming for proletarian revolution not only in India and the rest of South Asia but also in the imperialist centers of North America, West Europe and Japan. The true Leninist party that we aim to build will be composed in its majority of Dalits as well as oppressed minorities. Winning the trust of the Dalits and adivasi people will require special demands and forms of organization. A Leninist-Trotskyist party in India, section of a reforged Fourth International, will open up the possibility of a way out of the endless cycles of brutal oppression, injustice and poverty.
http://www.icl-fi.org/english/wv/1132/ants_among_elephants.html
submitted by finnagains to ChillSocialism [link] [comments]


2018.06.23 07:22 -0-1- All Aadhar links

  1. https://scroll.in/pulse/857656/across-india-hiv-positive-people-drop-out-of-treatment-programmes-as-centres-insist-on-aadhaar
  2. http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/india/rbi-clarifies-that-linking-aadhaar-to-bank-accounts-is-mandatory-2417021.html
  3. https://www.newsclick.in/ghosts-aadhaar-modi-govt-uidai-fabricated-data-duplicates-finds-it-activist
  4. https://www.ndtv.com/business/aadhaar-data-breach-210-government-websites-displayed-private-data-says-uidai-1777380?type=news&id=1777380&category=Business
https://www.medianama.com/2017/11/223-how-not-to-screw-up-your-national-id-india-aadhaa
http://www.rediff.com/news/column/aadhaar-is-based-on-unscientific-thinking-fallible-biometric-data/20171121.htm?sc_cid=twshare
http://www.deccanherald.com/content/643587/karnataka-set-make-aadhaar-must.html
http://www.zeebiz.com/india/news-govts-vision-to-link-1-billion-aadhaar-with-1-billion-bank-accounts-mobiles-each-31789
http://www.livemint.com/Politics/qQxjBmj7Ij3ZnybrVcg1KM/Now-Aadhaar-made-must-for-pension-plan.html
http://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/aadhaar-biometric-authentication-abba-public-distribution-system-pds-jharkhand-4946834/
http://www.livemint.com/Politics/Sujrt5EWD3XznY77a9rVhP/Supreme-Court-rejects-TMC-MLAs-plea-against-linking-Aadhaar.html
http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/aadhaar-a-double-whammy-for-the-disabled/article20629931.ece
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/agra/candidates-spouse-who-runs-aadhaar-centre-gives-out-cards-to-eight-minors-asking-them-to-vote-caught/articleshow/61756776.cms
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hyderabad/more-aadhaar-cards-than-hyderabads-population-generated-uidai-in-a-fix/articleshow/61761742.cms?from=mdr
https://blogs.economictimes.indiatimes.com/et-commentary/you-cant-make-citizens-safer-by-making-them-more-vulnerable-aadhaar-does-exactly-that/
http://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/crime/251117/thieves-use-aadhaar-to-steal-fingerprints-iris-info.html
http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/karnataka/2017/dec/02/no-fingers-or-iris-for-aadhaar-bengaluru-woman-loses-pension-1716448.html
https://www.newslaundry.com/2017/12/01/surely-youre-joking-mr-friedman
https://scroll.in/article/845369/a-critics-case-for-aadhaar-if-our-personal-data-is-the-new-oil-pay-us-for-it?utm_content=buffer960fe&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/goa/in-goa-no-paid-sex-without-aadhaar-card/articleshow/62101730.cms?utm_source=toiandroidapp&utm_medium=others&utm_campaign=show
http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/info-tech/uidai-suspends-airtel-airtel-payments-banks-ekyc-licence/article9995428.ece
https://scroll.in/article/823570/despite-the-comparisons-indias-aadhaar-project-is-nothing-like-americas-social-security-number
http://www.firstpost.com/tech/news-analysis/aadhaar-database-access-found-to-be-sold-on-whatsapp-for-rs-500-uidai-official-acknowledges-major-data-breach-4286427.html
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/indias-aadhaar-open-for-abuse-edward-snowden/articleshow/62379098.cms
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/fir-against-tribune-reporter-over-aadhaar-data-breach-story-5014674/lite/
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/aadhaar-officials-part-of-private-firms-that-use-aadhaar-services-for-profit-4874824/
http://www.frontline.in/columns/C_P_Chandrasekhathe-airtelaadhaar-fix/article10008384.ece
https://www.bloombergquint.com/opinion/2018/01/04/aadhaar-hasnt-fixed-identity-fraud-but-made-it-worse.amp?__twitter_impression=true
http://www.firstpost.com/india/congress-says-govt-destroyed-aadhaar-scheme-made-it-surveillance-tool-terms-fir-against-the-tribune-unfortunate-4291499.html
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/no-aadhaar-no-cashless-treatment-woman-told/articleshow/62389807.cms
https://thewire.in/211177/aadhaar-data-protection-law/
http://www.hindustantimes.com/interactives/aadhaar-mandatory-schemes-timeline/
http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2018/jan/07/fear-of-identity-theft-from-aadhaars-servers-1746429.html
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/fir-against-reporter-who-investigated-aadhaar-data-breach-is-an-attack-on-free-press-says-editors-guild/article22391114.ece?homepage=true
https://thelogicalindian.com/news/aadhaar-linked-accounts-of-5-customers-breached/
https://www.bbc.com/news/amp/world-asia-india-42575443?__twitter_impression=true
http://www.business-standard.com/article/opinion/it-s-2018-and-into-the-bin-the-aadhaar-must-go-118010500437_1.html?code=aU9xVjF4ZndqZ2p2SzlGaU1BNFhxSnF4TEMxT0lXVmdFT0lEQWxOZ0xOTT0%3D#.Wk9EBsHhYTo.twitter
https://www.bbc.com/news/amp/world-asia-india-42575443?__twitter_impression=true
http://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/all-is-not-well-with-aadhaar-leak-aadhaar-details-5013305/lite/
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/raipunow-aadhaar-must-for-being-a-surety-in-chhattisgarh-courts/articleshow/62402836.cms
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hyderabad/no-aadhaar-no-affiliation-jntu-warns-colleges/articleshow/62409522.cms
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/gurgaon/banks-told-to-link-accounts-with-aadhaar-by-feb-end/articleshow/62398019.cms
http://www.deccanherald.com/content/651505/cabinet-clears-bill-make-aadhaar.html
https://m.timesofindia.com/india/nerve-centre-of-uidai-gets-24x7-commando-shield/amp_articleshow/62215567.cms
https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/not-shooting-messenger-aadhaar-authoritys-defence-after-police-case-1796955
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/arrest-aadhaar-authorities-not-journalist-who-exposed-data-breach-edward-snowden/articleshow/62424575.cms
http://www.livelaw.in/aadhaar-database-fails-privacy-test-draft-data-protection-bill-committee-trojan-horse/
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/three-gujarat-websites-including-govt-portal-made-aadhaar-details-public/articleshow/62406648.cms
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/uidai-under-fire-for-fir-against-scribe/article22392592.ece
http://www.firstpost.com/india/despite-centres-aadhaar-push-its-benefits-for-poor-are-unclear-and-impact-on-pds-is-not-fully-known-claims-rbi-report-4294347.html
http://www.india.com/news/india/madurai-district-administration-makes-aadhaar-mandatory-for-bull-tamers-to-participate-in-jallikattu-celebrations-2839433/
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/aadhaar-card-projects-over-rs13000-crore-awarded-without-tenders/article7668321.ece
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/aadhaar-website-has-basic-security-flaws-blogs-aussie-expert/articleshow/62465993.cms
http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/aadhaar-card-must-for-licence-for-roadside-bunk-shops-hc/article22424236.ece
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/five-months-after-fir-by-uidai-official-no-chargesheet-yet-5021248/
http://www.hindustantimes.com/editorials/in-the-absence-of-privacy-and-data-protection-laws-the-overuse-of-aadhaar-could-result-in-privacy-violations-and-data-breaches/story-9tp9DMgBndmCOd5MlTYquO.html
https://www.telegraphindia.com/states/odisha/aadhaar-must-for-swachh-latrines-200166
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/service-providers-must-delete-aadhaar-details-say-activists/articleshow/62464922.cms
https://www.dailyo.in/politics/aadhaar-shekhar-gupta-manu-joseph-thomas-friedman-uidai-breach-privacy-starvation-death/story/1/21660.html
https://www.reddit.com/india/comments/7pli8d/make_up_your_darn_mind_uidai_recounting_a/
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/wealth/personal-finance-news/aadhaar-mobile-verification-no-relief-for-nris-senior-citizens-and-handicapped/articleshow/62457511.cms
https://www.buzzfeed.com/pranavdixit/nandan-nilekani-aadhaar-leaked-id-twitter?utm_term=.ckn7mEAg5#.faezQVbdq
https://inc42.com/buzz/india-uid-aadhaa
http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/S6Ep52qB9PK1DRLFUbUDBK/The-curious-case-of-FIR-by-the-UIDAI.html
http://www.livelaw.in/denial-information-lack-aadhaar-serious-breach-rti-act-cic-read-orde
http://www.freepressjournal.in/india/now-aadhar-needed-for-filing-pils-madras-high-court/1202314
http://www.firstpost.com/tech/news-analysis/twitter-user-highlights-potential-security-flaws-in-uidais-maadhaar-app-for-android-devices-user-data-could-be-compromised-4298719.html
https://qz.com/1174285/aadhaar-indias-biometric-id-project-putting-the-identities-and-personal-data-of-millions-at-risk/?share=9a1ef379
http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/aadhaar-enabling-a-form-of-supersurveillance/article22444686.ece/amp/?__twitter_impression=true
http://bangaloremirror.indiatimes.com/bangalore/others/aadhaar-phone-link-glitch-has-uid-official-simmering/articleshow/62545274.cms
https://newsclick.in/aadhaar-starving-poor
http://www.news18.com/news/india/facing-protests-madurai-collector-withdraws-aadhaar-diktat-on-jallikattu-1630335.html
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/policy/page-1-private-cos-team-up-to-bat-for-aadhaar-in-sc-_-coalition-for-aadhaaarticleshow/62532379.cms
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/final-aadhaar-hearing-uid-threat-to-constitution-apex-court-told/articleshow/62547101.cms
http://www.asianage.com/360-degree/140118/aadhaar-law-is-inadequate-to-deal-with-privacy-issues.html
http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/with-aadhaar-state-has-a-switch-that-can-cause-civil-death-of-a-citizen-petitioner-in-sc/story-5B0vaf5UzA2fF7VkNZlLqL.html
http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/now-aadhaar-mandatory-to-access-lic-policy-online/article22459136.ece
http://www.firstpost.com/india/aadhaars-new-face-authentication-system-opens-up-a-pandoras-box-of-problems-4305025.html
http://gginews.in/picture-intelligence-unit-aadhaar-based-surveillance-foreign-firms/
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/aurangabad/land-sold-off-using-fake-aadhaar-card/articleshow/62533353.cms
https://www.medianama.com/2018/01/223-when-a-god-is-a-ghost-one-of-many-unanswered-questions-on-aadhaa
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/aurangabad/land-sold-off-using-fake-aadhaar-card/articleshow/62533353.cms
https://newsclick.in/aadhaar-security-emperor-has-no-clothes
http://www.moneylife.in/article/ldquoeverything-about-aadhaar-is-unconstitutional-there-is-a-complete-lack-of-integrity-uidai-does-not-even-have-privity-of-contract-with-the-enrolment-agenciesrdquo-ndash-shyam-divan/52808.html
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/uidai-and-the-curious-case-of-the-man-whose-fingerprints-match-seven-others/article22466491.ece
http://www.hindustantimes.com/opinion/aadhaar-from-compiling-a-govt-database-to-creating-a-surveillance-society/story-Jj36c6tVyHJMjOhCI8vnBN.html
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/even-dhonis-uid-details-public-list-privacy-safeguards-says-sc/articleshow/62561703.cms
https://www.medianama.com/2018/01/223-panchayats-aadhaar-enrolement/
https://www.medianama.com/2018/01/223-constitutional-validity-aadhaar-day-1-compulsory-barte
https://www.medianama.com/2018/01/223-5-private-companies-file-application-supreme-court-support-aadhaa
http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/nation/aadhaar-project-threatens-rights-amnesty-international/527985.html http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/what-s-the-problem-sharing-details-with-govt-for-aadhaar-sc-to-petitioners/story-HattPkpVKkXdjzffWdHYkO.html
https://www.reddit.com/india/comments/7rjrsj/til_samsung_partnered_with_uidai_in_2016_to/
https://www.outlookindia.com/website/story/woman-claims-her-aadhaar-linked-to-nine-mobile-connections-uidai-says-go-file-a-/307176
https://www.thenewsminute.com/article/demand-link-aadhaar-services-must-be-criminalised-edward-snowden-75127?amp&__twitter_impression=true
https://scroll.in/article/865909/uidai-on-complaint-about-unknown-sims-connected-to-aadhaar-at-least-now-you-know
https://www.reddit.com/india/comments/7s6gls/vijay_shekhar_sharma_founder_of_paytm_on_aadhaa corporate interests supporting Aadhar
https://cjp.org.in/aadhaar-puts-bulls-eye-on-every-jawaans-back/
http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/nation/need-for-balance-between-state-s-actions-and-citizen-s-right-sc/533509.html
http://www.livelaw.in/aadhaar-day-4-session-2-aadhaar-projects-structure-promotes-establishment-surveillance-state-argues-shyam-divan/
http://www.daijiworld.com/news/newsDisplay.aspx?newsID=493240
https://www.medianama.com/2018/02/223-gujarat-bleeds-biometrics-uidai-says-aadhaar-biometrics-secure/
https://tech.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/internet/indian-govt-admits-to-cases-of-fraudulent-money-withdrawal-through-aadhaa62814917
http://www.livemint.com/Politics/PX65XG80418jmbD2VimAYI/No-proposal-to-make-Aadhaar-mandatory-for-electoral-bonds-G.html
https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/cant-strike-down-aadhaar-law-due-to-fear-of-misuse-supreme-court-judge-1809346
http://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/customers-defrauded-at-4-psbs-through-aadhaar-based-authentication-misuse-118020701643_1.html
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/centre-set-to-link-driving-licence-with-aadhaaarticle22683463.ece
https://www.neowin.net/news/mozilla-executive-pens-an-open-letter-on-indias-data-privacy-laws-and-aadhaar
https://blog.mozilla.org/blog/2018/02/09/open-letter-justice-srikrishna-data-privacy-aadhaa
https://in.reuters.com/article/india-aadhaar-breach/critics-of-aadhaar-project-say-they-have-been-harassed-put-under-surveillance-idINKBN1FX0FU http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/new-law-cannot-cure-pre-aadhaar-act-data-breaches-says-supreme-court/article22816551.ece?homepage=true
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/in-plea-in-sc-ec-shifts-stand-on-aadhaar-must-link-with-voter-card-5093550/
http://www.thehindu.com/todays-papetp-national/tp-karnataka/despite-clause-services-continue-to-be-denied-over-aadhaar-card/article23037986.ece
https://www.killerfeatures.com/state-government-websites-storing-aadhaar-data-without-security
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fWCZDN1ph4g&feature=share
https://www.thenewsminute.com/article/providing-info-under-aadhaar-exposes-trans-persons-violence-surveillance-ngo-sc-78291
https://telecom.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/dot-extends-aadhaar-based-re-verification-deadline-indefinitely/63399718
https://www.bloombergquint.com/aadhaa2018/03/21/the-key-arguments-in-supreme-court-against-aadhaar
https://www.medianama.com/2018/03/223-elliot-alderson-releases-source-for-an-aadhaar-search-engine/
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/what-is-the-necessity-of-storing-aadhaar-linked-data-supreme-court-asks-government/articleshow/63401570.cms?from=mdr
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/sc-how-many-denied-benefits-due-to-aadhaar-authentication-failure/articleshow/63421573.cms
http://www.livelaw.in/messages-linking-aadhaar-mobile-numbers-not-contain-last-date-view-sc-order-department-telecommunications/
https://www.dailyo.in/humouno-linking-aadhaar-safe-uidai-13-feet-wall-aadhaar-satire-sunny-deol-nirav-modi-cows/story/1/23012.html
https://www.indiatoday.in/amp/technology/news/story/aadhaar-is-generating-data-that-indians-will-be-able-to-sell-or-barter-for-benefits-nandan-nilekani-1195578-2018-03-22
http://www.zdnet.com/article/another-data-leak-hits-india-aadhaar-biometric-database/
https://gadgets.ndtv.com/internet/news/aadhaar-data-leaked-bank-information-exposed-by-state-owned-utility-provider-1828133
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/internet/major-security-lapse-hits-aadhaar-key-personal-info-leaked-reports-zdnet/articleshow/63445039.cms
http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/chandigarh/punjab-and-haryana-hc-issues-notice-to-uidai-over-forged-aadhaar-cards-asks-punjab-police-to-probe-5110560/
https://www.moneylife.in/article/ldquoaadhaar-is-a-license-raj-for-fundamental-rightsrdquo-ndash-sr-adv-meenakshi-arora/53439.html
https://www.theweek.in/news/biz-tech/2018/03/24/did-aadhaar-ceo-ajay-bhushan-pandey-mislead-supreme-court.amp.html
https://www.dailyo.in/politics/nandan-nilekani-facebook-cambridge-analytica-scandal-aadhaar-biometric-data-uidai-future-conference/story/1/23059.html
https://codecoolie.io/map_of_aadhaar_failures_2017_18.html
https://www.reddit.com/india/comments/86z8ww/aadharnama/ (AadharnamaI posted on reddit)
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-43207964
https://web.archive.org/web/20180326061115/https://www.reddit.com/india/comments/86z8ww/aadharnama/ (Aadharnama on wayback machine)
https://www.medianama.com/2018/03/223-unofficial-aadhaar-apps/
https://www.thequint.com/amp/story/news%2Findia%2F-aadhaar-authentication-failure-uidai-ceo-one-out-of-five?__twitter_impression=true
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/lucknow/rural-women-seek-delinking-of-aadhaar-with-ration/articleshow/63526809.cms?from=mdr
Phase 2
  1. https://www.medianama.com/2018/04/223-hacking-group-lulzsec-india-alleges-massive-aadhaar-and-pan-data-breach/
  2. https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/supreme-court-judge-questions-aadhaar-linking-to-mobile-phone-asks-is-everyone-a-terrorist-1833492?pfrom=home-topscroll
  3. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/can-dna-be-taken-for-aadhaar-asks-judge/article23447019.ece?homepage=true
  4. https://barandbench.com/delhi-hc-aadhaar-linkage-it-returns/
  5. https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/money-and-banking/aadhaar-seeding-must-for-bank-accounts-under-kyc-norms-rbi/article23629576.ece
  6. https://www.medianama.com/2018/04/223-the-government-admits-that-the-supreme-court-had-not-ordered-the-aadhaar-mobile-linking/
  7. https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/database-safe-but-theres-a-new-leak-1-3-lakh-aadhaar-bank-details-out-1842945?type=news&id=1842945&category=india-news
  8. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/didnt-order-aadhaar-sim-link-sc/article23673731.ece
  9. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-papetp-national/tp-telangana/sim-card-sellers-can-misuse-your-aadhaar-biometrics/article23715549.ece
  10. https://www.medianama.com/2018/04/223-aadhaar-leaks-list/
  11. https://m.timesofindia.com/india/aadhaar-not-must-for-mobile-sim-says-govt/amp_articleshow/63992984.cms
  12. https://thewire.in/economy/aadhaar-fraud-uidai
  13. https://blog.mozilla.org/netpolicy/2018/05/01/mozilla-statement-on-recent-reports-of-aadhaar-data-being-breached-again/
  14. https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/sc-questions-private-companies-using-aadhaar-says-it-goes-beyond-mandate-of-law/story-bu93CfiRpICaUZaWvEpSWL.html
  15. https://www.nationalheraldindia.com/india/sc-does-not-seem-to-agree-with-aadhaar-law-being-termed-a-money-bill
  16. https://www.newsclick.in/another-aadhaar-security-breach-even-biometric-data-can-be-misused
  17. http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/telangana/2018/may/03/25-lakh-telangana-pensioners-accounts-aadhaar-numbers-leaked-on-treasuries-department-website-1809491.amp?__twitter_impression=true
  18. https://scroll.in/article/877949/this-week-saw-3-aadhaar-leaks-and-an-admission-from-the-government-that-it-lied-about-mobile-linking
  19. https://www.karansaini.com/extracting-aadhaar-linked-phone-numbers/
  20. https://newsclick.in/uidai-paying-attention-aadhaar-security-failures-asks-fsmi
  21. https://www.moneylife.in/article/aadhaar-is-increasing-coercive-power-of-the-state-against-individuals-shyam-divan-tells-the-sc/53979.html
  22. https://foundation.mozilla.org/campaigns/release-the-bill/?sp_ref=410112189.352.187880.t.605542.3&source=twitter
  23. https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/100518/citing-mother-difficulty-example-sc-judge-says-aadhaar-serious-issue.html
  24. https://newsclick.in/how-aadhaar-makes-identity-fraud-much-easier
  25. http://www.caravanmagazine.in/vantage/jean-dreze-social-welfare-programmes-under-nda
  26. https://m.economictimes.com/news/economy/policy/worlds-largest-id-database-exposed-by-india-government-errors/amp_articleshow/64169884.cms?__twitter_impression=true
  27. https://m.economictimes.com/wealth/personal-finance-news/aadhaar-not-mandatory-for-getting-pension-government/articleshow/64173119.cms
  28. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/police-need-aadhaar-access-to-nab-first-time-offenders-says-ncrb-chief/article24220580.ece?homepage=true
  29. https://www.moneylife.in/article/aadhaar-is-infosys-founder-nilekanirsquos-conflict-of-interest-making-lives-difficult-for-bank-customers-through-finacle/54408.html
  30. https://www.moneylife.in/article/aadhaar-the-big-fat-lie-of-uidais-missing-person-found-propaganda/54544.html
  31. https://www.financialexpress.com/money/income-tax/bombay-high-court-allows-25-people-to-file-income-tax-returns-without-their-aadhaar-card-details-here-is-why/1225778/lite/
  32. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bhqZz7dQffQ&feature=youtu.be
  33. http://www.toxicswatch.org/2018/07/51-reasons-why-all-freedom-loving.html?m=1
  34. https://globalvoices.org/2018/07/13/in-india-regulators-are-deciding-the-fate-of-sensitive-data-behind-closed-doors/
  35. https://www.financialexpress.com/economy/jean-dreze-exclusive-mgnrega-workers-have-become-guinea-pigs-for-aadhaar-payments-system/1246759/
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  52. https://thewire.in/tech/aadhaar-fingerprints-ncrb-police-investigations
  53. https://newsd.in/aadhaar-needed-for-speed-posts-to-abroad/
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2018.06.14 22:26 finnagains Liberation of Dalits: Key to Indian Workers Revolution - Ants Among Elephants - For a Leninist Party to Fight Caste Oppression!

https://archive.li/1w5y8
Workers Vanguard No. 1132 20 April 2018
Liberation of Dalits: Key to Indian Workers Revolution
Ants Among Elephants
For a Leninist Party to Fight Caste Oppression!
A Review
In modern India, with its gleaming IT centers and manufacturing hubs, there are widespread illusions that untouchability is a thing of the past. Nothing could be further from the truth. Untouchability is at the core of the caste system, which has been perpetuated and entrenched within every sphere of Indian capitalist society. Sujatha Gidla’s 2017 book, Ants Among Elephants: An Untouchable Family and the Making of Modern India, shatters many of the myths that serve to make untouchability invisible. Her book is a sharply drawn picture of caste oppression and of her family’s unending struggles against it. It is a compelling read and has been widely acclaimed by reviewers.
Untouchability is not simply a condition of poverty that can be overcome by education and social mobility. As Gidla matter-of-factly states: “I was born into a lower-middle-class family. My parents were college lecturers. I was born an untouchable.” She uses the word “untouchable” rather than “Dalit” because it emphasizes the reality of what it means to be part of that population. Untouchability was formally abolished by the constitution of India, which gained its independence from Britain in 1947, and since that time much has changed in the country. But little has changed for the vast majority of India’s 220 million Dalits, for whom freedom from the yoke of caste oppression is yet to come.
Ants Among Elephants is both a family memoir and a political history of the author’s uncle, K.G. Satyamurthy (1931-2012), who became a famous leader of a Maoist guerrilla group. As such, the book shines a harsh spotlight on the atrocious record of India’s Stalinist parties on the question of untouchability. The Communist Party of India (CPI) and its offshoot the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI[M]) reject the fight for proletarian independence, and thus the fight for socialist revolution. Instead, they subordinate the interests of the oppressed and exploited masses to an alliance with the national bourgeoisie. From its inception, the CPI has acted as an appendage of the Congress Party, which has always been permeated with brahminical (high-caste) Hindu nationalism. Both the CPI and CPI(M) have utterly refused to fight against caste oppression, falsely counterposing such a fight to the class struggle. This is the opposite of Leninism. We stand on the tradition of Bolshevik leader V.I. Lenin, who insisted that the revolutionary workers party must champion the cause of all the oppressed in society, acting as the “tribune of the people.”
Untouchability is a form of special oppression that is not simply reducible to class exploitation, though it overlaps with it. A classic example of special oppression is the subjugation of women, which is a key prop of capitalist rule; a working-class woman, for example, bears the double burden of her oppression as a woman and as a worker. India is permeated with myriad forms of oppression, including those based on religion, language, ethnicity and nationality. In heavily Muslim Kashmir, which is divided between India and Pakistan, the Indian army this month gunned down twelve people in one day.
For Marxists, addressing the oppression of Dalits is a matter of strategic importance. Without a program for the liberation of Dalits, there will be no socialist revolution in India. Dalits are a central component of the working class. To date, there is no history or tradition of genuine Leninism as applied to caste oppression. As part of the struggle to forge a genuinely Leninist party in India, we Marxists of the International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist) are committed to the fight to end the caste system and for the liberation of Dalits.
The Indignities of Caste Oppression
The age-old caste system is historically rooted in India’s rural village economy. The wealthy upper castes dominate the lower castes and the countless subcastes, each one bowing their heads to those above and grinding the faces of those below. But none of these caste divisions is as fundamental, or as envenomed, as the chasm between caste and outcaste. A special place in hell is reserved for “untouchables,” who are forcibly segregated, socially and often physically, beneath all castes. As Gidla writes:
“The untouchables, whose special role—whose hereditary duty—is to labor in the fields of others or to do other work that Hindu society considers filthy, are not allowed to live in the village at all. They must live outside the boundaries of the village proper. They are not allowed to enter temples. Not allowed to come near sources of drinking water used by other castes. Not allowed to eat sitting next to a caste Hindu or to use the same utensils. There are thousands of other such restrictions and indignities that vary from place to place. Every day in an Indian newspaper you can read of an untouchable beaten or killed for wearing sandals, for riding a bicycle.”
In Gujarat last year, a Dalit man was thrashed by upper-caste thugs for “sporting a moustache.” In late March, a Dalit youth was bludgeoned to death for owning and riding a horse.
Gidla’s great-grandparents, tribal forest dwellers, were born in the late 1880s. They were not Hindus but worshipped their own deities. The family was driven out of its dwellings by the British colonial rulers in order to clear the forests for teak production. Her forebears worked an unused area of land and grew crops, only to be forced to pay revenue to the hated zamindar (landowner), who collected taxes on behalf of the British. The family was driven into debt and forced to surrender its land to the zamindar, and they became landless laborers. The enslavement of tribal people (the adivasi) continues to exist to this day.
Gidla’s family converted to Christianity and Sujatha, the author, grew up in a Dalit slum in what was then part of the state of Andhra Pradesh, where being Christian is synonymous with being “untouchable.” She “knew no Christian who did not turn servile in the presence of a Hindu” and “knew no Hindu who did not look right through a Christian man standing in front of him as if he did not exist.” It was only at the age of 15 that Gidla discovered, to her great shock, that there are Christian Brahmins—the Nambudiripad caste, which exists mainly in Kerala.
So entrenched is the caste system in the Indian subcontinent that it is practiced by virtually all religious groups in the region, including Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and Buddhists. India’s Muslims are in their vast majority regarded as “untouchable” and targeted for communal violence. This month, protests of outrage erupted over the torture, rape and murder of an eight-year-old girl, Asifa, from a nomadic Muslim family—a depraved and calculated act of terror by Hindu chauvinists in Kashmir. In Bangladesh, outcastes include the Rohingya, many of whom have been massacred in Myanmar. Pakistan’s impoverished Christians, who face Muslim-chauvinist terror, including for “blasphemy,” are also overwhelmingly deemed outcastes. Oppression based on caste is rife in Nepal as well as in Sri Lanka, where it is practiced by both Tamils and Sinhalese. Gidla, who lives in New York and works as a conductor in the subway system, points out that caste prejudice is rampant among Indians living in the U.S.
Gidla’s grandparents were allowed to attend a school run by Christian missionaries. Education enabled them—and their children—to rise above the unspeakable poverty that afflicts the vast majority of Dalits. But the family could not escape the burden of their untouchability. The story of the author’s mother, Manjula, a central character in the book, gives a sense of the oppression that Dalit women face: blatant caste and sex discrimination. Manjula and the other women in the family had to clean, cook and care for the extended family. Her older brother chose Manjula’s husband, who beat her to appease his own mother. Overcoming these immense obstacles, Manjula acquired a postgraduate degree.
Gidla’s family lived in the city and was thus spared the most heinous violence that is intrinsic to the caste system in the villages. Women are particularly targeted for sadistic crimes by upper-caste men who use rape as a means to humiliate both the woman and her caste. At the same time, inter-caste relationships are deadly dangerous. In February, a 20-year-old woman writhed in agony for hours before dying of poison that her father, assisted by the mother, forced down her throat. The father told the police that this was “just punishment for loving a man outside the community,” i.e., a Dalit.
In the city, one’s caste is less obvious. But by tradition everyone has the right to know, and if you lie, countless clues would give your caste away. In the universities, Dalit students are entering citadels of brahminism. In 2016 Rohith Vemula, a Dalit student at Hyderabad Central University, was hounded to death in a witchhunt spearheaded by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Hindu-chauvinist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government. Vemula’s suicide note said: “My birth is my fatal accident.” This February in Uttar Pradesh, a Dalit university student, Dileep Saroj, was beaten to death for having accidentally touched a caste Hindu. As Gidla put it: “Your life is your caste, your caste is your life.”
On average, every 15 minutes a crime is committed against Dalits, who have been facing increasing attacks since the BJP came to power in 2014. On April 2, Dalits staged an enormous bandh (shutdown protest) across India against a court ruling that weakens the Prevention of Atrocities Act, which ostensibly facilitates the prosecution of crimes committed against Dalits. Protesters were met with massive repression by the police, who killed at least twelve people, injured dozens and arrested thousands. While the legislation does little to protect Dalits from being murdered and maimed with impunity, the court ruling gives the green light to caste-chauvinist gangs for even more violent attacks. Indeed, upper-caste politicians and spokesmen have long been howling to repeal the law.
Stalinism: A Rotten Tradition on Caste
Sujatha Gidla’s uncle, K.G. Satyamurthy, who is a focus of Ants Among Elephants, was a college student when he was drawn to the Congress-led Quit India campaign against British rule. Quickly disillusioned with Congress, Satyamurthy decided to join the Communist Party of India. In so doing, he accepted the view that “one was supposed to think only in terms of class and not of caste. When the class struggle was won, discrimination based on caste would disappear.” With this rotten line, India’s Stalinist parties have tarnished the banner of communism on the question of caste, as they have on every other question of revolution. The deep caste chauvinism prevalent in society constitutes an enormous obstacle to forging the unity the working class needs in its struggles against capital. The struggle for socialist liberation in India requires the building of a Leninist vanguard party to lead the proletariat in the fight against the oppression of the Dalit masses.
Satyamurthy joined the CPI because—unusually for the Stalinists—the party joined a revolt of the oppressed in Telangana (which was then part of Andhra Pradesh). The Telangana struggle (1946-51) was an insurrection against the monstrous rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Nizam’s rule was reinforced by the British, providing a textbook example of how colonial rule strengthened the caste system. As Gidla writes: “There were systems of servitude in every part of India, but none was as ruthless as the vetti system in Telangana, the heartland of the Nizam’s kingdom of the Deccan.” Under the vetti system, “every untouchable family in the village had to give up their first male child as soon as he learned to talk and walk.” The child would become a slave in the household of the dora, the Nizam’s local agent. Similarly, all the women of the village were the property of the dora. Gidla notes that if the dora “called while they were eating they had to leave the food on their plates and come to his bed.”
The CPI in Andhra Pradesh became involved in the Telangana armed struggle and built a guerrilla army that soon controlled large areas of the countryside. In 1948, the ruling Congress Party under Jawaharlal Nehru dispatched the army to Telangana. The Nizam had initially refused to bring his kingdom into the newly independent state of India, but quickly surrendered his “princely state” to the Indian army, which then turned to its main mission: crushing the Communist-led rebellion. Over the next three years the army massacred untold numbers of Muslims, peasants and tribal people. In the wake of the slaughter, the CPI reverted back to its historic role as an appendage of Congress, which had previously ordered that Communists be hanged from trees. Gidla bitterly notes that the CPI leadership “gave in to Nehru without even demanding amnesty for the ten thousand party members who were rotting in detention camps.”
Satyamurthy was devastated that the CPI abandoned the armed struggle and even more shocked to discover that the turn was sanctioned by Stalin. In 1964, the CPI split into pro-Soviet and pro-China wings. Satyamurthy sided with the pro-China faction that would become the CPI(M), hoping that the “Chinese path” would mean following the example of Mao, who had led a peasant army to victory. But the CPI(M) voted at its first conference to follow the parliamentary road.
When the CPI(M) became part of a capitalist government in West Bengal in 1967, a layer of party cadre split and launched an armed uprising in Naxalbari, becoming known as Naxalites. The split attracted a large portion of CPI(M) members in Andhra Pradesh, including Satyamurthy and many veterans of the Telangana struggle. Both the CPI and CPI(M) drew a blood line against the Naxalites. In the 1970s, the CPI supported their ruthless suppression at the hands of Congress leader Indira Gandhi. In August 1971, CPI(M) cadre joined with Congress goons in a massacre of Naxalite suspects and sympathizers in Calcutta.
And when it came to crimes against Dalits, the CPI(M) during its decades in power in West Bengal mirrored the Indian ruling class. In 1979, the CPI(M)-led government massacred hundreds of Dalit Hindu refugees from Bangladesh who were living on the island of Marichjhapi. In 2007, in Nandigram, West Bengal, CPI(M) goons joined cops in a massacre of perhaps 100 people who were protesting against land-grabbing for capitalist enterprise.
In 1980, Satyamurthy cofounded the People’s War Group (PWG) in Andhra Pradesh with Kondapalli Seetharamayya, a caste Hindu who was a veteran of the CPI and the Telangana uprising. The PWG, which became one of the best-known Naxalite groups—and the Naxalites in general—won significant support among Dalits, for whom the armed guerrillas offered a much-needed measure of protection against the brutal violence of the upper-caste landlords and the state. However, the Maoist program offers no way forward. The Maoists have no political program other than to look for “progressive” bourgeois allies, invariably sacrificing the interests of the poorest peasants to unity with “broader forces.” According to the Naxalites, Dalits must unite with the “intermediate” castes in a struggle against the “feudal” large landowners. In reality, the “intermediate” castes are often bitterly and violently hostile to Dalits and tribal people owning land.
While the Naxalites traditionally drew their support largely from Dalits (and today mainly from among the adivasi people), they have refused to politically address the question of untouchability. The issue exploded inside the PWG in 1984 when young Dalit party members complained to Satyamurthy of caste-chauvinist practices in the functioning of the party: comrades of the barber caste were assigned to shave other comrades; those from the washer caste to wash clothes; Dalit members were told to sweep floors and clean lavatories.
Satyamurthy, who had personally experienced caste chauvinism from his comrades, scheduled a Central Committee meeting to discuss the issue. The party leadership responded by having him “expelled on the spot for ‘conspiring to divide the party’,” as Gidla reports. In refusing to even discuss caste prejudice in its own ranks, the Maoist PWG was true to its political roots in the CPI.
M.N. Roy’s Distortions of Leninism
Ants Among Elephants brilliantly exposes the political bankruptcy of Indian would-be Marxists on the question of caste oppression. The task that genuine communists face is to outline a Bolshevik perspective for India. Marxists must address the daily oppression of Dalits and adivasi people up to and after the victory of socialist revolution. The ICL looks to the lessons of the first four congresses of the Communist International (CI). We seek to forge a party in India armed with a program of permanent revolution, the program that laid the basis for victory in the Bolshevik-led 1917 October Revolution. Under the leadership of Lenin and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks established the dictatorship of the proletariat with the support of the poorer peasantry and downtrodden ethnic minorities. The Soviet government issued far-reaching decrees, granting the right of self-determination to the oppressed nations, full legal equality for women and land to landless peasants.
In 1920, Lenin drafted a set of theses on the agrarian question, which could have been written for India today. As opposed to the Maoist strategy of peasant war divorced from the struggles of the working class, the theses stipulate that “there is no salvation for the working masses of the countryside except in alliance with the Communist proletariat.” The theses continued: “The industrial workers cannot accomplish their epoch-making mission of emancipating mankind from the yoke of capital and from wars if they confine themselves to their narrow craft, or trade interests, and smugly restrict themselves to attaining an improvement in their own conditions.”
The founder of the Communist Party in India, M.N. Roy, brought a distortion of Leninism to the subcontinent and put the nascent movement on a course of capitulation to bourgeois nationalism. As early as 1922, Roy drafted a manifesto for the bourgeois-nationalist Congress Party urging the organization to put itself at the head of the working-class and peasant masses. Under Roy’s guidance, the CPI set out from its founding in December 1925 to build a Peasants’ and Workers’ Party in Bengal. Rather than fighting to build a proletarian party that could lead the peasant masses, Roy sought to build a two-class party (i.e., a bourgeois party) where the interests of the working class would necessarily be subordinated to those of the petty-bourgeois peasantry.
Roy’s political program was contrary to the perspective outlined at the 1920 Second Congress of the CI, which Roy himself attended. Lenin insisted: “The Communist International must enter into a temporary alliance with bourgeois democracy in the colonial and backward countries, but should not merge with it, and should under all circumstances uphold the independence of the proletarian movement even if it is in its most embryonic form” (“Preliminary Draft Theses on the National and the Colonial Questions,” 1920).
When the CI came under the bureaucratic leadership of the nationalist Stalinist bureaucracy, Roy acted as Stalin’s representative in China in 1927. On Stalin’s instructions, the Chinese Communist Party remained within the bourgeois-nationalist Guomindang even as its leader, Chiang Kai-shek, staged a coup in April 1927 and disarmed and massacred tens of thousands of Communist-led workers in Shanghai (see “M.N. Roy, Nationalist Menshevik,” Spartacist [English-language edition] No. 62, Spring 2011). The slaughter in China was the bitter fruit of the Stalinist program of subordinating the proletariat to the bourgeois nationalists. Two decades later, the Indian Stalinists reaped the reward for their support to the Indian nationalists in the bloody suppression of the Communist-led peasant uprising in Telangana at the hands of Nehru and his home minister, Vallabhbhai Patel, known as the “Iron Man of India.”
The CPI’s capitulation to brahminical chauvinism precluded their fighting against the oppression of Dalits. This was evident in the late 1920s when Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the historic Dalit leader, led mass protests against untouchability in the state of Maharashtra. During that period, the Communists had acquired significant support among the combative proletariat in the Bombay textile mills, where Dalit workers were forbidden from working in the higher-paying weaving department and forced to drink water from separate pitchers. A Leninist party would have fought tooth and nail to win all workers to demand an end to untouchability in the workplace and for equal pay for all.
But CPI leaders would not carry out such a fight and did not even mobilize for the protests against untouchability. An exasperated Ambedkar disdained the CPI leaders as “mostly a bunch of Brahmin boys.” He concluded: “The Russians made a great mistake to entrust the Communist movement in India to them. Either the Russians didn’t want Communism in India—they wanted only drummer boys—or they didn’t understand” (quoted in Selig S. Harrison, India: The Most Dangerous Decades [1960]).
Amid the growing drive for Indian independence from British rule, the CPI grotesquely dismissed the fight against caste oppression as a diversion from the “anti-imperialist” struggle. Moreover, in the wretched tradition of Roy, the CPI ceded the leadership of the anti-colonial struggle to the bourgeois nationalists led by Mohandas (“Mahatma”) Gandhi. By turning a deaf ear to the struggle against untouchability, the CPI drove many Dalits into Ambedkar’s dead-end framework of reforming capitalism.
In 1931, the British masters of “divide and rule” offered Ambedkar a separate electorate for the “depressed classes,” as they had granted to Muslims. This would have allowed Dalits, who are geographically dispersed, to form a single electoral bloc. Astutely recognizing that Ambedkar’s followers might unite with Muslims to form a counterweight to Congress, Gandhi declared a “fast to the death” against the British proposal. In opposition to Ambedkar, Gandhi proclaimed himself to be the leader of those he patronizingly labeled “harijans” (children of God). Though he campaigned against certain aspects of untouchability—demanding, for example, temple entry—Gandhi was a staunch supporter of the brahminical caste system.
For his part, Ambedkar fostered illusions that the British could be used as a bulwark against the upper-caste Indian nationalists. With the outbreak of World War II, he supported the imperialists and joined the Viceroy’s Executive Council. In this, he was not unique. Gandhi, too, supported the British at the beginning of the war, though he could not win the Congress leadership to his position. It was not until 1942 that Congress launched the Quit India movement. As for the CPI, the Indian Stalinists also supported the “democratic” imperialists from the time of Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 onward, betraying the interests of the colonial masses.
Following independence, the ruling Congress Party agreed to reserve seats in Parliament for “scheduled” tribes and castes and co-opted Ambedkar to draft the new constitution. In addition to banning untouchability, the written document promised many freedoms, including for women, but they remained largely a dead letter. Ambedkar himself later noted: “The same old tyranny, the same old oppression, the same old discrimination which existed before, exists now, and perhaps in a worse form.”
For a Trotskyist Perspective
India’s transition from preindustrial society did not lead to the dissolution of caste relations. The British colonial rulers—backed by the large landowners and nascent local bourgeoisie—preserved, manipulated and reinforced rural backwardness and the caste system. The post-independence period has shown that the Indian capitalist rulers are incapable of solving basic democratic questions. The land reforms introduced by Congress largely restricted redistribution to those within the landowning castes.
To this day, Dalits who manage to buy land are often attacked by mobs, and the legal transfer of ownership is routinely bogged down in wrangles for years. The proportion of landless people in rural India has increased from 28 percent of the rural population in 1951 to nearly 55 percent in 2011. And it continues to rise.
Indian capital is dependent on imperialist finance capital. Almost 70 percent of the population lives in small villages. However, the rural areas are no longer the main source of capital accumulation for the dominant rural castes, who are increasingly investing in industry. This fact underlines that the fight to expropriate the landlords—and provide land to the landless masses—is inseparable from the fight to expropriate the bourgeoisie as a class.
Side by side with its rural backwardness, India is now the fifth-largest manufacturer in the world. The Indian proletariat is small relative to the rural population, but it has the social power to lead the peasant masses and all the oppressed in a fight to overthrow capitalist exploitation. To exercise that power will take a struggle to overcome the insidious caste divisions in the working class.
As Leninists, the ICL fights to build a vanguard party that imbues the proletariat with the understanding that the struggle against Dalit oppression is in the interest of the entire working class of India. A case in point would be to mobilize to free 13 imprisoned union leaders from the Maruti Suzuki plant at Gurgaon-Manesar near Delhi. In 2012, a supervisor attacked a Dalit worker with casteist slurs. The union defended the worker. But the company, which has long sought to crush the union, hired thugs who provoked an altercation, after which the union leaders were outrageously framed up on a murder charge. Last year, the 13 unionists were sentenced to life in prison (see “India: Free Maruti Suzuki Union Leaders!” WV No. 1112, 19 May 2017).
The workers movement should also take a stand in defense of the Bhim Army, a Dalit rights organization that has been subjected to fierce repression by the BJP government in Uttar Pradesh. The Bhim Army’s leader, Chandrashekhar Azad, is being held in prison under the draconian National Security Act, despite having been acquitted of all the (bogus) charges against him. The unions and organizations of the oppressed must demand: Free Chandrashekhar Azad now!
Sujatha Gidla’s Ants Among Elephants powerfully illustrates the central role caste oppression plays in Indian society. The liberation of the Dalit masses requires the forging of a revolutionary workers party dedicated to fighting all forms of oppression. In turn, Marxists committed to building such a party must fight to overcome the shameful legacy of Stalinism by planting the banner of the Trotskyist program of permanent revolution. This program is thoroughly internationalist, aiming for proletarian revolution not only in India and the rest of South Asia but also in the imperialist centers of North America, West Europe and Japan. The true Leninist party that we aim to build will be composed in its majority of Dalits as well as oppressed minorities. Winning the trust of the Dalits and adivasi people will require special demands and forms of organization. A Leninist-Trotskyist party in India, section of a reforged Fourth International, will open up the possibility of a way out of the endless cycles of brutal oppression, injustice and poverty.
http://www.icl-fi.org/english/wv/1132/ants_among_elephants.html
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2018.06.01 01:24 FinnagainsAwake Liberation of Dalits: Key to Indian Workers Revolution - Ants Among Elephants - For a Leninist Party to Fight Caste Oppression! (Workers Vanguard)

Workers Vanguard No. 1132 20 April 2018
Liberation of Dalits: Key to Indian Workers Revolution
Ants Among Elephants
For a Leninist Party to Fight Caste Oppression!
A Review
In modern India, with its gleaming IT centers and manufacturing hubs, there are widespread illusions that untouchability is a thing of the past. Nothing could be further from the truth. Untouchability is at the core of the caste system, which has been perpetuated and entrenched within every sphere of Indian capitalist society. Sujatha Gidla’s 2017 book, Ants Among Elephants: An Untouchable Family and the Making of Modern India, shatters many of the myths that serve to make untouchability invisible. Her book is a sharply drawn picture of caste oppression and of her family’s unending struggles against it. It is a compelling read and has been widely acclaimed by reviewers.
Untouchability is not simply a condition of poverty that can be overcome by education and social mobility. As Gidla matter-of-factly states: “I was born into a lower-middle-class family. My parents were college lecturers. I was born an untouchable.” She uses the word “untouchable” rather than “Dalit” because it emphasizes the reality of what it means to be part of that population. Untouchability was formally abolished by the constitution of India, which gained its independence from Britain in 1947, and since that time much has changed in the country. But little has changed for the vast majority of India’s 220 million Dalits, for whom freedom from the yoke of caste oppression is yet to come.
Ants Among Elephants is both a family memoir and a political history of the author’s uncle, K.G. Satyamurthy (1931-2012), who became a famous leader of a Maoist guerrilla group. As such, the book shines a harsh spotlight on the atrocious record of India’s Stalinist parties on the question of untouchability. The Communist Party of India (CPI) and its offshoot the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI[M]) reject the fight for proletarian independence, and thus the fight for socialist revolution. Instead, they subordinate the interests of the oppressed and exploited masses to an alliance with the national bourgeoisie. From its inception, the CPI has acted as an appendage of the Congress Party, which has always been permeated with brahminical (high-caste) Hindu nationalism. Both the CPI and CPI(M) have utterly refused to fight against caste oppression, falsely counterposing such a fight to the class struggle. This is the opposite of Leninism. We stand on the tradition of Bolshevik leader V.I. Lenin, who insisted that the revolutionary workers party must champion the cause of all the oppressed in society, acting as the “tribune of the people.”
Untouchability is a form of special oppression that is not simply reducible to class exploitation, though it overlaps with it. A classic example of special oppression is the subjugation of women, which is a key prop of capitalist rule; a working-class woman, for example, bears the double burden of her oppression as a woman and as a worker. India is permeated with myriad forms of oppression, including those based on religion, language, ethnicity and nationality. In heavily Muslim Kashmir, which is divided between India and Pakistan, the Indian army this month gunned down twelve people in one day.
For Marxists, addressing the oppression of Dalits is a matter of strategic importance. Without a program for the liberation of Dalits, there will be no socialist revolution in India. Dalits are a central component of the working class. To date, there is no history or tradition of genuine Leninism as applied to caste oppression. As part of the struggle to forge a genuinely Leninist party in India, we Marxists of the International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist) are committed to the fight to end the caste system and for the liberation of Dalits.
The Indignities of Caste Oppression
The age-old caste system is historically rooted in India’s rural village economy. The wealthy upper castes dominate the lower castes and the countless subcastes, each one bowing their heads to those above and grinding the faces of those below. But none of these caste divisions is as fundamental, or as envenomed, as the chasm between caste and outcaste. A special place in hell is reserved for “untouchables,” who are forcibly segregated, socially and often physically, beneath all castes. As Gidla writes:
“The untouchables, whose special role—whose hereditary duty—is to labor in the fields of others or to do other work that Hindu society considers filthy, are not allowed to live in the village at all. They must live outside the boundaries of the village proper. They are not allowed to enter temples. Not allowed to come near sources of drinking water used by other castes. Not allowed to eat sitting next to a caste Hindu or to use the same utensils. There are thousands of other such restrictions and indignities that vary from place to place. Every day in an Indian newspaper you can read of an untouchable beaten or killed for wearing sandals, for riding a bicycle.”
In Gujarat last year, a Dalit man was thrashed by upper-caste thugs for “sporting a moustache.” In late March, a Dalit youth was bludgeoned to death for owning and riding a horse.
Gidla’s great-grandparents, tribal forest dwellers, were born in the late 1880s. They were not Hindus but worshipped their own deities. The family was driven out of its dwellings by the British colonial rulers in order to clear the forests for teak production. Her forebears worked an unused area of land and grew crops, only to be forced to pay revenue to the hated zamindar (landowner), who collected taxes on behalf of the British. The family was driven into debt and forced to surrender its land to the zamindar, and they became landless laborers. The enslavement of tribal people (the adivasi) continues to exist to this day.
Gidla’s family converted to Christianity and Sujatha, the author, grew up in a Dalit slum in what was then part of the state of Andhra Pradesh, where being Christian is synonymous with being “untouchable.” She “knew no Christian who did not turn servile in the presence of a Hindu” and “knew no Hindu who did not look right through a Christian man standing in front of him as if he did not exist.” It was only at the age of 15 that Gidla discovered, to her great shock, that there are Christian Brahmins—the Nambudiripad caste, which exists mainly in Kerala.
So entrenched is the caste system in the Indian subcontinent that it is practiced by virtually all religious groups in the region, including Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and Buddhists. India’s Muslims are in their vast majority regarded as “untouchable” and targeted for communal violence. This month, protests of outrage erupted over the torture, rape and murder of an eight-year-old girl, Asifa, from a nomadic Muslim family—a depraved and calculated act of terror by Hindu chauvinists in Kashmir. In Bangladesh, outcastes include the Rohingya, many of whom have been massacred in Myanmar. Pakistan’s impoverished Christians, who face Muslim-chauvinist terror, including for “blasphemy,” are also overwhelmingly deemed outcastes. Oppression based on caste is rife in Nepal as well as in Sri Lanka, where it is practiced by both Tamils and Sinhalese. Gidla, who lives in New York and works as a conductor in the subway system, points out that caste prejudice is rampant among Indians living in the U.S.
Gidla’s grandparents were allowed to attend a school run by Christian missionaries. Education enabled them—and their children—to rise above the unspeakable poverty that afflicts the vast majority of Dalits. But the family could not escape the burden of their untouchability. The story of the author’s mother, Manjula, a central character in the book, gives a sense of the oppression that Dalit women face: blatant caste and sex discrimination. Manjula and the other women in the family had to clean, cook and care for the extended family. Her older brother chose Manjula’s husband, who beat her to appease his own mother. Overcoming these immense obstacles, Manjula acquired a postgraduate degree.
Gidla’s family lived in the city and was thus spared the most heinous violence that is intrinsic to the caste system in the villages. Women are particularly targeted for sadistic crimes by upper-caste men who use rape as a means to humiliate both the woman and her caste. At the same time, inter-caste relationships are deadly dangerous. In February, a 20-year-old woman writhed in agony for hours before dying of poison that her father, assisted by the mother, forced down her throat. The father told the police that this was “just punishment for loving a man outside the community,” i.e., a Dalit.
In the city, one’s caste is less obvious. But by tradition everyone has the right to know, and if you lie, countless clues would give your caste away. In the universities, Dalit students are entering citadels of brahminism. In 2016 Rohith Vemula, a Dalit student at Hyderabad Central University, was hounded to death in a witchhunt spearheaded by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Hindu-chauvinist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government. Vemula’s suicide note said: “My birth is my fatal accident.” This February in Uttar Pradesh, a Dalit university student, Dileep Saroj, was beaten to death for having accidentally touched a caste Hindu. As Gidla put it: “Your life is your caste, your caste is your life.”
On average, every 15 minutes a crime is committed against Dalits, who have been facing increasing attacks since the BJP came to power in 2014. On April 2, Dalits staged an enormous bandh (shutdown protest) across India against a court ruling that weakens the Prevention of Atrocities Act, which ostensibly facilitates the prosecution of crimes committed against Dalits. Protesters were met with massive repression by the police, who killed at least twelve people, injured dozens and arrested thousands. While the legislation does little to protect Dalits from being murdered and maimed with impunity, the court ruling gives the green light to caste-chauvinist gangs for even more violent attacks. Indeed, upper-caste politicians and spokesmen have long been howling to repeal the law.
Stalinism: A Rotten Tradition on Caste
Sujatha Gidla’s uncle, K.G. Satyamurthy, who is a focus of Ants Among Elephants, was a college student when he was drawn to the Congress-led Quit India campaign against British rule. Quickly disillusioned with Congress, Satyamurthy decided to join the Communist Party of India. In so doing, he accepted the view that “one was supposed to think only in terms of class and not of caste. When the class struggle was won, discrimination based on caste would disappear.” With this rotten line, India’s Stalinist parties have tarnished the banner of communism on the question of caste, as they have on every other question of revolution. The deep caste chauvinism prevalent in society constitutes an enormous obstacle to forging the unity the working class needs in its struggles against capital. The struggle for socialist liberation in India requires the building of a Leninist vanguard party to lead the proletariat in the fight against the oppression of the Dalit masses.
Satyamurthy joined the CPI because—unusually for the Stalinists—the party joined a revolt of the oppressed in Telangana (which was then part of Andhra Pradesh). The Telangana struggle (1946-51) was an insurrection against the monstrous rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Nizam’s rule was reinforced by the British, providing a textbook example of how colonial rule strengthened the caste system. As Gidla writes: “There were systems of servitude in every part of India, but none was as ruthless as the vetti system in Telangana, the heartland of the Nizam’s kingdom of the Deccan.” Under the vetti system, “every untouchable family in the village had to give up their first male child as soon as he learned to talk and walk.” The child would become a slave in the household of the dora, the Nizam’s local agent. Similarly, all the women of the village were the property of the dora. Gidla notes that if the dora “called while they were eating they had to leave the food on their plates and come to his bed.”
The CPI in Andhra Pradesh became involved in the Telangana armed struggle and built a guerrilla army that soon controlled large areas of the countryside. In 1948, the ruling Congress Party under Jawaharlal Nehru dispatched the army to Telangana. The Nizam had initially refused to bring his kingdom into the newly independent state of India, but quickly surrendered his “princely state” to the Indian army, which then turned to its main mission: crushing the Communist-led rebellion. Over the next three years the army massacred untold numbers of Muslims, peasants and tribal people. In the wake of the slaughter, the CPI reverted back to its historic role as an appendage of Congress, which had previously ordered that Communists be hanged from trees. Gidla bitterly notes that the CPI leadership “gave in to Nehru without even demanding amnesty for the ten thousand party members who were rotting in detention camps.”
Satyamurthy was devastated that the CPI abandoned the armed struggle and even more shocked to discover that the turn was sanctioned by Stalin. In 1964, the CPI split into pro-Soviet and pro-China wings. Satyamurthy sided with the pro-China faction that would become the CPI(M), hoping that the “Chinese path” would mean following the example of Mao, who had led a peasant army to victory. But the CPI(M) voted at its first conference to follow the parliamentary road.
When the CPI(M) became part of a capitalist government in West Bengal in 1967, a layer of party cadre split and launched an armed uprising in Naxalbari, becoming known as Naxalites. The split attracted a large portion of CPI(M) members in Andhra Pradesh, including Satyamurthy and many veterans of the Telangana struggle. Both the CPI and CPI(M) drew a blood line against the Naxalites. In the 1970s, the CPI supported their ruthless suppression at the hands of Congress leader Indira Gandhi. In August 1971, CPI(M) cadre joined with Congress goons in a massacre of Naxalite suspects and sympathizers in Calcutta.
And when it came to crimes against Dalits, the CPI(M) during its decades in power in West Bengal mirrored the Indian ruling class. In 1979, the CPI(M)-led government massacred hundreds of Dalit Hindu refugees from Bangladesh who were living on the island of Marichjhapi. In 2007, in Nandigram, West Bengal, CPI(M) goons joined cops in a massacre of perhaps 100 people who were protesting against land-grabbing for capitalist enterprise.
In 1980, Satyamurthy cofounded the People’s War Group (PWG) in Andhra Pradesh with Kondapalli Seetharamayya, a caste Hindu who was a veteran of the CPI and the Telangana uprising. The PWG, which became one of the best-known Naxalite groups—and the Naxalites in general—won significant support among Dalits, for whom the armed guerrillas offered a much-needed measure of protection against the brutal violence of the upper-caste landlords and the state. However, the Maoist program offers no way forward. The Maoists have no political program other than to look for “progressive” bourgeois allies, invariably sacrificing the interests of the poorest peasants to unity with “broader forces.” According to the Naxalites, Dalits must unite with the “intermediate” castes in a struggle against the “feudal” large landowners. In reality, the “intermediate” castes are often bitterly and violently hostile to Dalits and tribal people owning land.
While the Naxalites traditionally drew their support largely from Dalits (and today mainly from among the adivasi people), they have refused to politically address the question of untouchability. The issue exploded inside the PWG in 1984 when young Dalit party members complained to Satyamurthy of caste-chauvinist practices in the functioning of the party: comrades of the barber caste were assigned to shave other comrades; those from the washer caste to wash clothes; Dalit members were told to sweep floors and clean lavatories.
Satyamurthy, who had personally experienced caste chauvinism from his comrades, scheduled a Central Committee meeting to discuss the issue. The party leadership responded by having him “expelled on the spot for ‘conspiring to divide the party’,” as Gidla reports. In refusing to even discuss caste prejudice in its own ranks, the Maoist PWG was true to its political roots in the CPI.
M.N. Roy’s Distortions of Leninism
Ants Among Elephants brilliantly exposes the political bankruptcy of Indian would-be Marxists on the question of caste oppression. The task that genuine communists face is to outline a Bolshevik perspective for India. Marxists must address the daily oppression of Dalits and adivasi people up to and after the victory of socialist revolution. The ICL looks to the lessons of the first four congresses of the Communist International (CI). We seek to forge a party in India armed with a program of permanent revolution, the program that laid the basis for victory in the Bolshevik-led 1917 October Revolution. Under the leadership of Lenin and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks established the dictatorship of the proletariat with the support of the poorer peasantry and downtrodden ethnic minorities. The Soviet government issued far-reaching decrees, granting the right of self-determination to the oppressed nations, full legal equality for women and land to landless peasants.
In 1920, Lenin drafted a set of theses on the agrarian question, which could have been written for India today. As opposed to the Maoist strategy of peasant war divorced from the struggles of the working class, the theses stipulate that “there is no salvation for the working masses of the countryside except in alliance with the Communist proletariat.” The theses continued: “The industrial workers cannot accomplish their epoch-making mission of emancipating mankind from the yoke of capital and from wars if they confine themselves to their narrow craft, or trade interests, and smugly restrict themselves to attaining an improvement in their own conditions.”
The founder of the Communist Party in India, M.N. Roy, brought a distortion of Leninism to the subcontinent and put the nascent movement on a course of capitulation to bourgeois nationalism. As early as 1922, Roy drafted a manifesto for the bourgeois-nationalist Congress Party urging the organization to put itself at the head of the working-class and peasant masses. Under Roy’s guidance, the CPI set out from its founding in December 1925 to build a Peasants’ and Workers’ Party in Bengal. Rather than fighting to build a proletarian party that could lead the peasant masses, Roy sought to build a two-class party (i.e., a bourgeois party) where the interests of the working class would necessarily be subordinated to those of the petty-bourgeois peasantry.
Roy’s political program was contrary to the perspective outlined at the 1920 Second Congress of the CI, which Roy himself attended. Lenin insisted: “The Communist International must enter into a temporary alliance with bourgeois democracy in the colonial and backward countries, but should not merge with it, and should under all circumstances uphold the independence of the proletarian movement even if it is in its most embryonic form” (“Preliminary Draft Theses on the National and the Colonial Questions,” 1920).
When the CI came under the bureaucratic leadership of the nationalist Stalinist bureaucracy, Roy acted as Stalin’s representative in China in 1927. On Stalin’s instructions, the Chinese Communist Party remained within the bourgeois-nationalist Guomindang even as its leader, Chiang Kai-shek, staged a coup in April 1927 and disarmed and massacred tens of thousands of Communist-led workers in Shanghai (see “M.N. Roy, Nationalist Menshevik,” Spartacist [English-language edition] No. 62, Spring 2011). The slaughter in China was the bitter fruit of the Stalinist program of subordinating the proletariat to the bourgeois nationalists. Two decades later, the Indian Stalinists reaped the reward for their support to the Indian nationalists in the bloody suppression of the Communist-led peasant uprising in Telangana at the hands of Nehru and his home minister, Vallabhbhai Patel, known as the “Iron Man of India.”
The CPI’s capitulation to brahminical chauvinism precluded their fighting against the oppression of Dalits. This was evident in the late 1920s when Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the historic Dalit leader, led mass protests against untouchability in the state of Maharashtra. During that period, the Communists had acquired significant support among the combative proletariat in the Bombay textile mills, where Dalit workers were forbidden from working in the higher-paying weaving department and forced to drink water from separate pitchers. A Leninist party would have fought tooth and nail to win all workers to demand an end to untouchability in the workplace and for equal pay for all.
But CPI leaders would not carry out such a fight and did not even mobilize for the protests against untouchability. An exasperated Ambedkar disdained the CPI leaders as “mostly a bunch of Brahmin boys.” He concluded: “The Russians made a great mistake to entrust the Communist movement in India to them. Either the Russians didn’t want Communism in India—they wanted only drummer boys—or they didn’t understand” (quoted in Selig S. Harrison, India: The Most Dangerous Decades [1960]).
Amid the growing drive for Indian independence from British rule, the CPI grotesquely dismissed the fight against caste oppression as a diversion from the “anti-imperialist” struggle. Moreover, in the wretched tradition of Roy, the CPI ceded the leadership of the anti-colonial struggle to the bourgeois nationalists led by Mohandas (“Mahatma”) Gandhi. By turning a deaf ear to the struggle against untouchability, the CPI drove many Dalits into Ambedkar’s dead-end framework of reforming capitalism.
In 1931, the British masters of “divide and rule” offered Ambedkar a separate electorate for the “depressed classes,” as they had granted to Muslims. This would have allowed Dalits, who are geographically dispersed, to form a single electoral bloc. Astutely recognizing that Ambedkar’s followers might unite with Muslims to form a counterweight to Congress, Gandhi declared a “fast to the death” against the British proposal. In opposition to Ambedkar, Gandhi proclaimed himself to be the leader of those he patronizingly labeled “harijans” (children of God). Though he campaigned against certain aspects of untouchability—demanding, for example, temple entry—Gandhi was a staunch supporter of the brahminical caste system.
For his part, Ambedkar fostered illusions that the British could be used as a bulwark against the upper-caste Indian nationalists. With the outbreak of World War II, he supported the imperialists and joined the Viceroy’s Executive Council. In this, he was not unique. Gandhi, too, supported the British at the beginning of the war, though he could not win the Congress leadership to his position. It was not until 1942 that Congress launched the Quit India movement. As for the CPI, the Indian Stalinists also supported the “democratic” imperialists from the time of Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 onward, betraying the interests of the colonial masses.
Following independence, the ruling Congress Party agreed to reserve seats in Parliament for “scheduled” tribes and castes and co-opted Ambedkar to draft the new constitution. In addition to banning untouchability, the written document promised many freedoms, including for women, but they remained largely a dead letter. Ambedkar himself later noted: “The same old tyranny, the same old oppression, the same old discrimination which existed before, exists now, and perhaps in a worse form.”
For a Trotskyist Perspective
India’s transition from preindustrial society did not lead to the dissolution of caste relations. The British colonial rulers—backed by the large landowners and nascent local bourgeoisie—preserved, manipulated and reinforced rural backwardness and the caste system. The post-independence period has shown that the Indian capitalist rulers are incapable of solving basic democratic questions. The land reforms introduced by Congress largely restricted redistribution to those within the landowning castes.
To this day, Dalits who manage to buy land are often attacked by mobs, and the legal transfer of ownership is routinely bogged down in wrangles for years. The proportion of landless people in rural India has increased from 28 percent of the rural population in 1951 to nearly 55 percent in 2011. And it continues to rise.
Indian capital is dependent on imperialist finance capital. Almost 70 percent of the population lives in small villages. However, the rural areas are no longer the main source of capital accumulation for the dominant rural castes, who are increasingly investing in industry. This fact underlines that the fight to expropriate the landlords—and provide land to the landless masses—is inseparable from the fight to expropriate the bourgeoisie as a class.
Side by side with its rural backwardness, India is now the fifth-largest manufacturer in the world. The Indian proletariat is small relative to the rural population, but it has the social power to lead the peasant masses and all the oppressed in a fight to overthrow capitalist exploitation. To exercise that power will take a struggle to overcome the insidious caste divisions in the working class.
As Leninists, the ICL fights to build a vanguard party that imbues the proletariat with the understanding that the struggle against Dalit oppression is in the interest of the entire working class of India. A case in point would be to mobilize to free 13 imprisoned union leaders from the Maruti Suzuki plant at Gurgaon-Manesar near Delhi. In 2012, a supervisor attacked a Dalit worker with casteist slurs. The union defended the worker. But the company, which has long sought to crush the union, hired thugs who provoked an altercation, after which the union leaders were outrageously framed up on a murder charge. Last year, the 13 unionists were sentenced to life in prison (see “India: Free Maruti Suzuki Union Leaders!” WV No. 1112, 19 May 2017).
The workers movement should also take a stand in defense of the Bhim Army, a Dalit rights organization that has been subjected to fierce repression by the BJP government in Uttar Pradesh. The Bhim Army’s leader, Chandrashekhar Azad, is being held in prison under the draconian National Security Act, despite having been acquitted of all the (bogus) charges against him. The unions and organizations of the oppressed must demand: Free Chandrashekhar Azad now!
Sujatha Gidla’s Ants Among Elephants powerfully illustrates the central role caste oppression plays in Indian society. The liberation of the Dalit masses requires the forging of a revolutionary workers party dedicated to fighting all forms of oppression. In turn, Marxists committed to building such a party must fight to overcome the shameful legacy of Stalinism by planting the banner of the Trotskyist program of permanent revolution. This program is thoroughly internationalist, aiming for proletarian revolution not only in India and the rest of South Asia but also in the imperialist centers of North America, West Europe and Japan. The true Leninist party that we aim to build will be composed in its majority of Dalits as well as oppressed minorities. Winning the trust of the Dalits and adivasi people will require special demands and forms of organization. A Leninist-Trotskyist party in India, section of a reforged Fourth International, will open up the possibility of a way out of the endless cycles of brutal oppression, injustice and poverty.
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